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Review

SARS-CoV-2 Infection: New Molecular, Phylogenetic, and Pathogenetic Insights. Efficacy of Current Vaccines and the Potential Risk of Variants

1
Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
2
Center for Studies on Gender Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Ferrara, 64/b, Fossato di Mortara Street, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
3
Laboratory for Technologies of Advanced Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara, 44121 Ferrara, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Herve J. A. Fleury
Viruses 2021, 13(9), 1687; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13091687
Received: 2 July 2021 / Revised: 16 August 2021 / Accepted: 21 August 2021 / Published: 25 August 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue HIV and SARS-CoV-2 Pathogenesis and Vaccine Development)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly discovered coronavirus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. COVID-19 has rapidly become a public health emergency of international concern. Although remarkable scientific achievements have been reached since the beginning of the pandemic, the knowledge behind this novel coronavirus, in terms of molecular and pathogenic characteristics and zoonotic potential, is still relatively limited. Today, there is a vaccine, or rather several vaccines, which, for the first time in the history of highly contagious infectious diseases that have plagued mankind, has been manufactured in just one year. Currently, four vaccines are licensed by regulatory agencies, and they use RNA or viral vector technologies. The positive effects of the vaccination campaign are being felt in many parts of the world, but the disappearance of this new infection is still far from being a reality, as it is also threatened by the presence of novel SARS-CoV-2 variants that could undermine the effectiveness of the vaccine, hampering the immunization control efforts. Indeed, the current findings indicate that SARS-CoV-2 is adapting to transmission in humans more efficiently, while further divergence from the initial archetype should be considered. In this review, we aimed to provide a collection of the current knowledge regarding the molecular, phylogenetic, and pathogenetic insights into SARS-CoV-2. The most recent findings obtained with respect to the impact of novel emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants as well as the development and implementation of vaccines are highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2; CoV; coronaviruses; coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; spike protein; variants; vaccine; zoonosis Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; SARS-CoV-2; CoV; coronaviruses; coronavirus disease 2019; COVID-19; spike protein; variants; vaccine; zoonosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rotondo, J.C.; Martini, F.; Maritati, M.; Mazziotta, C.; Di Mauro, G.; Lanzillotti, C.; Barp, N.; Gallerani, A.; Tognon, M.; Contini, C. SARS-CoV-2 Infection: New Molecular, Phylogenetic, and Pathogenetic Insights. Efficacy of Current Vaccines and the Potential Risk of Variants. Viruses 2021, 13, 1687. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13091687

AMA Style

Rotondo JC, Martini F, Maritati M, Mazziotta C, Di Mauro G, Lanzillotti C, Barp N, Gallerani A, Tognon M, Contini C. SARS-CoV-2 Infection: New Molecular, Phylogenetic, and Pathogenetic Insights. Efficacy of Current Vaccines and the Potential Risk of Variants. Viruses. 2021; 13(9):1687. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13091687

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rotondo, John Charles, Fernanda Martini, Martina Maritati, Chiara Mazziotta, Giulia Di Mauro, Carmen Lanzillotti, Nicole Barp, Altea Gallerani, Mauro Tognon, and Carlo Contini. 2021. "SARS-CoV-2 Infection: New Molecular, Phylogenetic, and Pathogenetic Insights. Efficacy of Current Vaccines and the Potential Risk of Variants" Viruses 13, no. 9: 1687. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13091687

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