Viruses are dependent on host factors at all parts of the infection cycle, such as translation, genome replication, encapsidation, and cell-to-cell and systemic movement. RNA viruses replicate their genome in compartments associated with the endoplasmic reticulum, chloroplasts, and mitochondria or peroxisome membranes. In contrast, DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus. Viral infection causes changes in plant gene expression and in the subcellular localization of some host proteins. These changes may support or inhibit virus accumulation and spread. Here, we review host proteins that change their subcellular localization in the presence of a plant virus. The most frequent change is the movement of host cytoplasmic proteins into the sites of virus replication through interactions with viral proteins, and the protein contributes to essential viral processes. In contrast, only a small number of studies document changes in the subcellular localization of proteins with antiviral activity. Understanding the changes in the subcellular localization of host proteins during plant virus infection provides novel insights into the mechanisms of plant–virus interactions and may help the identification of targets for designing genetic resistance to plant viruses.
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