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Review

Application of Super-Resolution and Advanced Quantitative Microscopy to the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Influenza Virus Replication

1
Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London WC1E 6AE, UK
2
MRC Laboratory for Molecular Cell Biology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
3
Department of Cell Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
4
The Francis Crick Institute, London NW1 1AT, UK
5
Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência, 2780-156 Oeiras, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cristina Risco
Viruses 2021, 13(2), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020233
Received: 4 January 2021 / Revised: 28 January 2021 / Accepted: 28 January 2021 / Published: 2 February 2021
With an estimated three to five million human cases annually and the potential to infect domestic and wild animal populations, influenza viruses are one of the greatest health and economic burdens to our society, and pose an ongoing threat of large-scale pandemics. Despite our knowledge of many important aspects of influenza virus biology, there is still much to learn about how influenza viruses replicate in infected cells, for instance, how they use entry receptors or exploit host cell trafficking pathways. These gaps in our knowledge are due, in part, to the difficulty of directly observing viruses in living cells. In recent years, advances in light microscopy, including super-resolution microscopy and single-molecule imaging, have enabled many viral replication steps to be visualised dynamically in living cells. In particular, the ability to track single virions and their components, in real time, now allows specific pathways to be interrogated, providing new insights to various aspects of the virus-host cell interaction. In this review, we discuss how state-of-the-art imaging technologies, notably quantitative live-cell and super-resolution microscopy, are providing new nanoscale and molecular insights into influenza virus replication and revealing new opportunities for developing antiviral strategies. View Full-Text
Keywords: super-resolution microscopy; advanced light microscopy; quantitative microscopy; live-cell microscopy; SMLM; STORM; SIM; STED; expansion microscopy; influenza virus; viral replication super-resolution microscopy; advanced light microscopy; quantitative microscopy; live-cell microscopy; SMLM; STORM; SIM; STED; expansion microscopy; influenza virus; viral replication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Touizer, E.; Sieben, C.; Henriques, R.; Marsh, M.; Laine, R.F. Application of Super-Resolution and Advanced Quantitative Microscopy to the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Influenza Virus Replication. Viruses 2021, 13, 233. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020233

AMA Style

Touizer E, Sieben C, Henriques R, Marsh M, Laine RF. Application of Super-Resolution and Advanced Quantitative Microscopy to the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Influenza Virus Replication. Viruses. 2021; 13(2):233. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020233

Chicago/Turabian Style

Touizer, Emma, Christian Sieben, Ricardo Henriques, Mark Marsh, and Romain F. Laine 2021. "Application of Super-Resolution and Advanced Quantitative Microscopy to the Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Influenza Virus Replication" Viruses 13, no. 2: 233. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13020233

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