Next Article in Journal
Novel Picornavirus Detected in Wild Deer: Identification, Genomic Characterisation, and Prevalence in Australia
Next Article in Special Issue
Bridging the Local Persistence and Long-Range Dispersal of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (HPAIv): A Case Study of HPAIv-Infected Sedentary and Migratory Wildfowls Inhabiting Infected Premises
Previous Article in Journal
Tribute to John C. Martin at the Twentieth Anniversary of the Breakthrough of Tenofovir in the Treatment of HIV Infections
Previous Article in Special Issue
Detection of a Novel Reassortant H9N9 Avian Influenza Virus in Free-Range Ducks in Bangladesh
 
 
Review

Influenza A and D Viruses in Non-Human Mammalian Hosts in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of Zambia, Lusaka 10101, Zambia
2
Department of Disease Control, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka 10101, Zambia
3
Africa Centre of Excellence for Infectious Diseases of Humans and Animals, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, Lusaka 10101, Zambia
4
Machinga Agricultural Development Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Irrigation and Water Development, Liwonde 303110, Malawi
5
Division of Global Epidemiology, International Institute for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, N 20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0020, Japan
6
Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
7
Division of Molecular Pathobiology, International Institute for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, N 20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0020, Japan
8
International Collaboration Unit, International Institute for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, N 20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo 001-0020, Japan
9
Global Virus Network, 725 W Lombard Street, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
10
Macha Research Trust, Choma 20100, Zambia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gregory Tannock and Hyunsuh Kim
Viruses 2021, 13(12), 2411; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13122411
Received: 3 November 2021 / Revised: 25 November 2021 / Accepted: 30 November 2021 / Published: 2 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strategies for Preventing Viral Epidemics and Pandemics)
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the prevalence and current knowledge of influenza A virus (IAV) and influenza D virus (IDV) in non-human mammalian hosts in Africa. PubMed, Google Scholar, Wiley Online Library and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE-WAHIS) were searched for studies on IAV and IDV from 2000 to 2020. Pooled prevalence and seroprevalences were estimated using the quality effects meta-analysis model. The estimated pooled prevalence and seroprevalence of IAV in pigs in Africa was 1.6% (95% CI: 0–5%) and 14.9% (95% CI: 5–28%), respectively. The seroprevalence of IDV was 87.2% (95% CI: 24–100%) in camels, 9.3% (95% CI: 0–24%) in cattle, 2.2% (95% CI: 0–4%) in small ruminants and 0.0% (95% CI: 0–2%) in pigs. In pigs, H1N1 and H1N1pdm09 IAVs were commonly detected. Notably, the highly pathogenic H5N1 virus was also detected in pigs. Other subtypes detected serologically and/or virologically included H3N8 and H7N7 in equids, H1N1, and H3N8 and H5N1 in dogs and cats. Furthermore, various wildlife animals were exposed to different IAV subtypes. For prudent mitigation of influenza epizootics and possible human infections, influenza surveillance efforts in Africa should not neglect non-human mammalian hosts. The impact of IAV and IDV in non-human mammalian hosts in Africa deserves further investigation. View Full-Text
Keywords: animal influenza; influenza A virus; influenza D virus; Africa; prevalence; seroprevalence animal influenza; influenza A virus; influenza D virus; Africa; prevalence; seroprevalence
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kalonda, A.; Phonera, M.; Saasa, N.; Kajihara, M.; Sutcliffe, C.G.; Sawa, H.; Takada, A.; Simulundu, E. Influenza A and D Viruses in Non-Human Mammalian Hosts in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Viruses 2021, 13, 2411. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13122411

AMA Style

Kalonda A, Phonera M, Saasa N, Kajihara M, Sutcliffe CG, Sawa H, Takada A, Simulundu E. Influenza A and D Viruses in Non-Human Mammalian Hosts in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Viruses. 2021; 13(12):2411. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13122411

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kalonda, Annie, Marvin Phonera, Ngonda Saasa, Masahiro Kajihara, Catherine G. Sutcliffe, Hirofumi Sawa, Ayato Takada, and Edgar Simulundu. 2021. "Influenza A and D Viruses in Non-Human Mammalian Hosts in Africa: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Viruses 13, no. 12: 2411. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13122411

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop