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Article

Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses in Zambia-Implications for the Epidemiology of the Disease in Southern Africa

1
Central Veterinary Research Institute, Lusaka 10101, Zambia
2
Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa
3
Department of Veterinary Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Lusaka 10101, Zambia
4
Tokabio (Pty) Limited, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
5
Botswana Vaccine Institute, Lejara, Gaborone 5617, Botswana
6
The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright GU24 0NF, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Caroline Tapparel
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2195; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112195
Received: 21 September 2021 / Revised: 22 October 2021 / Accepted: 26 October 2021 / Published: 31 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Control)
The livestock industry supports livelihood and nutritional security of at least 42% of people in the Southern African Development Community region. However, presence of animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease poses a major threat to the development of this industry. Samples collected from FMD outbreaks in Zambia during 2015–2020, comprising epithelial tissues samples (n = 47) and sera (n = 120), were analysed. FMD virus was serotyped in 26 samples, while 92 sera samples tested positive on NSP-ELISA. Phylogenetic analysis revealed notable changes in the epidemiology of FMD in Zambia, which included: (i) introduction of a novel FMDV SAT-3 (topotype II) causing FMD cases in cattle in Western Province; (ii) emergence of FMDV serotype O (topotype O/EA-2) in Central, Southern, Copperbelt, Western, Lusaka Provinces; and (iii) new outbreaks due to SAT -2 (topotypes I) in Eastern Zambia. Together, these data describe eight different epizootics that occurred in Zambia, four of which were outside the known FMD high-risk areas. This study highlights the complex epidemiology of FMD in Zambia, where the country represents an interface between East Africa (Pool 4) and Southern Africa (Pool 6). These changing viral dynamics have direct impacts on FMD vaccine selection in the SADC region. View Full-Text
Keywords: FMD; livestock; buffalo FMD; livestock; buffalo
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MDPI and ACS Style

Banda, F.; Sinkala, Y.; Mataa, L.; Lebea, P.; Sikombe, T.; Kangwa, H.L.; Fana, E.M.; Mokopasetso, M.; Wadsworth, J.; Knowles, N.J.; King, D.P.; Quan, M. Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses in Zambia-Implications for the Epidemiology of the Disease in Southern Africa. Viruses 2021, 13, 2195. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112195

AMA Style

Banda F, Sinkala Y, Mataa L, Lebea P, Sikombe T, Kangwa HL, Fana EM, Mokopasetso M, Wadsworth J, Knowles NJ, King DP, Quan M. Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses in Zambia-Implications for the Epidemiology of the Disease in Southern Africa. Viruses. 2021; 13(11):2195. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112195

Chicago/Turabian Style

Banda, Frank, Yona Sinkala, Liywalli Mataa, Phiyani Lebea, Tingiya Sikombe, Henry L. Kangwa, Elliot M. Fana, Mokganedi Mokopasetso, Jemma Wadsworth, Nick J. Knowles, Donald P. King, and Melvyn Quan. 2021. "Characterization of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Viruses in Zambia-Implications for the Epidemiology of the Disease in Southern Africa" Viruses 13, no. 11: 2195. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112195

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