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Mental Health and Substance Use Associated with Hospitalization among People with COVID-19: A Population-Based Cohort Study

1
British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4R4, Canada
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School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z3, Canada
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Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z7, Canada
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Centre for Health Evaluation and Outcome Sciences, St. Paul’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC V6Z 1Y6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Dimitrios Paraskevis, Maria Yavropoulou and Sotirios Tsiodras
Viruses 2021, 13(11), 2196; https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112196
Received: 29 September 2021 / Revised: 23 October 2021 / Accepted: 28 October 2021 / Published: 31 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Topic Burden of COVID-19 in Different Countries)
This study identified factors associated with hospital admission among people with laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 cases in British Columbia. The study used data from the BC COVID-19 Cohort, which integrates data on all COVID-19 cases with data on hospitalizations, medical visits, emergency room visits, prescription drugs, chronic conditions and deaths. The analysis included all laboratory-diagnosed COVID-19 cases in British Columbia to 15 January 2021. We evaluated factors associated with hospital admission using multivariable Poisson regression analysis with robust error variance. Of the 56,874 COVID-19 cases included in the analysis, 2298 were hospitalized. Factors associated with increased hospitalization risk were as follows: male sex (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.17–1.37), older age (p-trend < 0.0001 across age groups increasing hospitalization risk with increasing age [aRR 30–39 years = 3.06; 95% CI = 2.32–4.03, to aRR 80+ years = 43.68; 95% CI = 33.41–57.10 compared to 20–29 years-old]), asthma (aRR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.04–1.26), cancer (aRR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.09–1.29), chronic kidney disease (aRR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.19–1.47), diabetes (treated without insulin aRR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.03–1.25, requiring insulin aRR = 5.05; 95% CI = 4.43–5.76), hypertension (aRR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.08–1.31), injection drug use (aRR = 2.51; 95% CI = 2.14–2.95), intellectual and developmental disabilities (aRR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.05–2.66), problematic alcohol use (aRR = 1.63; 95% CI = 1.43–1.85), immunosuppression (aRR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.09–1.53), and schizophrenia and psychotic disorders (aRR = 1.49; 95% CI = 1.23–1.82). In an analysis restricted to women of reproductive age, pregnancy (aRR = 2.69; 95% CI = 1.42–5.07) was associated with increased risk of hospital admission. Older age, male sex, substance use, intellectual and developmental disability, chronic comorbidities, and pregnancy increase the risk of COVID-19-related hospitalization. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; cohort studies; registries; risk factors; hospitalization; mental health; substance-related disorders; diabetes mellitus; intellectual disability; pregnancy COVID-19; cohort studies; registries; risk factors; hospitalization; mental health; substance-related disorders; diabetes mellitus; intellectual disability; pregnancy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Velásquez García, H.A.; Wilton, J.; Smolina, K.; Chong, M.; Rasali, D.; Otterstatter, M.; Rose, C.; Prystajecky, N.; David, S.; Galanis, E.; McKee, G.; Krajden, M.; Janjua, N.Z. Mental Health and Substance Use Associated with Hospitalization among People with COVID-19: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Viruses 2021, 13, 2196. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112196

AMA Style

Velásquez García HA, Wilton J, Smolina K, Chong M, Rasali D, Otterstatter M, Rose C, Prystajecky N, David S, Galanis E, McKee G, Krajden M, Janjua NZ. Mental Health and Substance Use Associated with Hospitalization among People with COVID-19: A Population-Based Cohort Study. Viruses. 2021; 13(11):2196. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112196

Chicago/Turabian Style

Velásquez García, Héctor A., James Wilton, Kate Smolina, Mei Chong, Drona Rasali, Michael Otterstatter, Caren Rose, Natalie Prystajecky, Samara David, Eleni Galanis, Geoffrey McKee, Mel Krajden, and Naveed Z. Janjua. 2021. "Mental Health and Substance Use Associated with Hospitalization among People with COVID-19: A Population-Based Cohort Study" Viruses 13, no. 11: 2196. https://doi.org/10.3390/v13112196

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