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Open AccessReview

Induction of the Antiviral Immune Response and Its Circumvention by Coronaviruses

1
Key Laboratory of Fujian-Taiwan Animal Pathogen Biology, College of Animal Sciences (College of Bee Science), Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
2
CAS Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Beijing 100101, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091039
Received: 1 August 2020 / Revised: 12 September 2020 / Accepted: 14 September 2020 / Published: 18 September 2020
Some coronaviruses are zoonotic viruses of human and veterinary medical importance. The novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory symptoms coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), associated with the current global pandemic, is characterized by pneumonia, lymphopenia, and a cytokine storm in humans that has caused catastrophic impacts on public health worldwide. Coronaviruses are known for their ability to evade innate immune surveillance exerted by the host during the early phase of infection. It is important to comprehensively investigate the interaction between highly pathogenic coronaviruses and their hosts. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge about coronaviruses with a focus on antiviral immune responses in the respiratory and intestinal tracts to infection with severe coronaviruses that have caused epidemic diseases in humans and domestic animals. We emphasize, in particular, the strategies used by these coronaviruses to circumvent host immune surveillance, mainly including the hijack of antigen-presenting cells, shielding RNA intermediates in replication organelles, 2′-O-methylation modification for the evasion of RNA sensors, and blocking of interferon signaling cascades. We also provide information about the potential development of coronavirus vaccines and antiviral drugs. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronaviruses; viral tissue tropism; antiviral immune response; interferon signaling; immune evasion coronaviruses; viral tissue tropism; antiviral immune response; interferon signaling; immune evasion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, P.; Hong, Y.; Yang, B.; Shrestha, P.; Sajjad, N.; Chen, J.-L. Induction of the Antiviral Immune Response and Its Circumvention by Coronaviruses. Viruses 2020, 12, 1039. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091039

AMA Style

Liu P, Hong Y, Yang B, Shrestha P, Sajjad N, Chen J-L. Induction of the Antiviral Immune Response and Its Circumvention by Coronaviruses. Viruses. 2020; 12(9):1039. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091039

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Ping; Hong, Yan; Yang, Bincai; Shrestha, Prasha; Sajjad, Nelam; Chen, Ji-Long. 2020. "Induction of the Antiviral Immune Response and Its Circumvention by Coronaviruses" Viruses 12, no. 9: 1039. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091039

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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