Next Article in Journal
Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus nsP3 Phosphorylation Can Be Mediated by IKKβ Kinase Activity and Abrogation of Phosphorylation Inhibits Negative-Strand Synthesis
Next Article in Special Issue
A Unique Relative of Rotifer Birnavirus Isolated from Australian Mosquitoes
Previous Article in Journal
Convolutional Neural Network Based Approach to In Silico Non-Anticipating Prediction of Antigenic Distance for Influenza Virus
Previous Article in Special Issue
Characterization of Port Bolivar Virus, a Novel Entomobirnavirus (Birnaviridae) Isolated from Mosquitoes Collected in East Texas, USA
viruses-logo
Article Menu

Article Menu

Article

Chikungunya Outbreak in the Republic of the Congo, 2019—Epidemiological, Virological and Entomological Findings of a South-North Multidisciplinary Taskforce Investigation

1
National Institute for Infectious Diseases ‘Lazzaro Spallanzani’, IRCCS, 00149 Rome, Italy
2
Fondation Congolaise Pour la Recherche Médicale (FCRM), Brazzaville CG-BZV, Congo
3
Ministry of Science and Technology, Brazzaville CG-BZV, Congo
4
University Marien Ngouabi, Brazzaville CG-BZV, Congo
5
Institute for Tropical Medicine, University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
6
Ministry of Public Health, Brazzaville CG-BZV, Congo
7
The Royal Veterinary College, University of London, Hawkshead Lane, Hertfordshire NW1 0TU, UK
8
Department de Sante Publique, Pointe Noire CG-16, Congo
9
SACIDS Foundation for One Health, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro 30007, Tanzania
10
Virus Ecology Unit, Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, NIAID/NIH, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
11
Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, Bernhard Nocht Strasse, D-20359 Hamburg, Germany
12
German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner Site Hamburg, 38124 Hamburg, Germany
13
National Institute for Medical Research, Dar es Salaam 9653, Tanzania
14
Laboratoire National de la Santè Publique, Brazzaville CG-BZV, Congo
15
Division of Infection and Immunity, Center for Clinical Microbiology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK
16
National Institute of Health Research Biomedical Research Centre at UCL Hospitals, London W1T 7HA, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Membership of the Pandora-ID-NET Consortium Chikungunya Outbreak Group Taskforce is provided in the Acknowledgments.
Viruses 2020, 12(9), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091020
Received: 13 August 2020 / Revised: 8 September 2020 / Accepted: 10 September 2020 / Published: 13 September 2020
The Republic of Congo (RoC) declared a chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak on 9 February 2019. We conducted a ONE-Human-Animal HEALTH epidemiological, virological and entomological investigation. Methods: We collected national surveillance and epidemiological data. CHIK diagnosis was based on RT-PCR and CHIKV-specific antibodies. Full CHIKV genome sequences were obtained by Sanger and MinION approaches and Bayesian tree phylogenetic analysis was performed. Mosquito larvae and 215 adult mosquitoes were collected in different villages of Kouilou and Pointe-Noire districts and estimates of Aedes (Ae.) mosquitos’ CHIKV-infectious bites obtained. We found two new CHIKV sequences of the East/Central/South African (ECSA) lineage, clustering with the recent enzootic sub-clade 2, showing the A226V mutation. The RoC 2019 CHIKV strain has two novel mutations, E2-T126M and E2-H351N. Phylogenetic suggests a common origin from 2016 Angola strain, from which it diverged around 1989 (95% HPD 1985–1994). The infectious bite pattern was similar for 2017, 2018 and early 2019. One Ae. albopictus pool was RT-PCR positive. The 2019 RoC CHIKV strain seems to be recently introduced or be endemic in sylvatic cycle. Distinct from the contemporary Indian CHIKV isolates and in contrast to the original Central-African strains (transmitted by Ae. aegypti), it carries the A226V mutation, indicating an independent adaptive mutation in response to vector replacement (Ae. albopictus vs Ae. aegypti). View Full-Text
Keywords: chikungunya; Republic of Congo; outbreak; Aedes spp; mosquito; arbovirus; ONE-HEALTH chikungunya; Republic of Congo; outbreak; Aedes spp; mosquito; arbovirus; ONE-HEALTH
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Vairo, F.; Aimè Coussoud-Mavoungou, M.P.; Ntoumi, F.; Castilletti, C.; Kitembo, L.; Haider, N.; Carletti, F.; Colavita, F.; Gruber, C.E.M.; Iannetta, M.; Messina, F.; Lanini, S.; Ulrich Judicaël, B.; Giombini, E.; Montaldo, C.; Portella, C.; Diafouka-Diatela, S.; Rueca, M.; Kock, R.; Bartolini, B.; Mboera, L.; Munster, V.; Fischer, R.; Seifert, S.; Muñoz-Fontela, C.; Escudero-Pérez, B.; Gomez-Medina, S.; Nelson, E.V.; Kjia Tungu, P.; Nicastri, E.; Puro, V.; Di Caro, A.; Capobianchi, M.R.; Mikolo, J.L.; Zumla, A.; Ippolito, G.; on behalf of the Pandora-ID-NET Consortium Chikungunya Outbreak Group Taskforce. Chikungunya Outbreak in the Republic of the Congo, 2019—Epidemiological, Virological and Entomological Findings of a South-North Multidisciplinary Taskforce Investigation. Viruses 2020, 12, 1020. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091020

AMA Style

Vairo F, Aimè Coussoud-Mavoungou MP, Ntoumi F, Castilletti C, Kitembo L, Haider N, Carletti F, Colavita F, Gruber CEM, Iannetta M, Messina F, Lanini S, Ulrich Judicaël B, Giombini E, Montaldo C, Portella C, Diafouka-Diatela S, Rueca M, Kock R, Bartolini B, Mboera L, Munster V, Fischer R, Seifert S, Muñoz-Fontela C, Escudero-Pérez B, Gomez-Medina S, Nelson EV, Kjia Tungu P, Nicastri E, Puro V, Di Caro A, Capobianchi MR, Mikolo JL, Zumla A, Ippolito G, on behalf of the Pandora-ID-NET Consortium Chikungunya Outbreak Group Taskforce. Chikungunya Outbreak in the Republic of the Congo, 2019—Epidemiological, Virological and Entomological Findings of a South-North Multidisciplinary Taskforce Investigation. Viruses. 2020; 12(9):1020. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091020

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vairo, Francesco, Martin P. Aimè Coussoud-Mavoungou, Francine Ntoumi, Concetta Castilletti, Lambert Kitembo, Najmul Haider, Fabrizio Carletti, Francesca Colavita, Cesare E.M. Gruber, Marco Iannetta, Francesco Messina, Simone Lanini, Biez Ulrich Judicaël, Emanuela Giombini, Chiara Montaldo, Chantal Portella, Steve Diafouka-Diatela, Martina Rueca, Richard Kock, Barbara Bartolini, Leonard Mboera, Vincent Munster, Robert Fischer, Stephanie Seifert, César Muñoz-Fontela, Beatriz Escudero-Pérez, Sergio Gomez-Medina, Emily V. Nelson, Patrick Kjia Tungu, Emanuele Nicastri, Vincenzo Puro, Antonino Di Caro, Maria R. Capobianchi, Jacqueline L. Mikolo, Alimuddin Zumla, Giuseppe Ippolito, and on behalf of the Pandora-ID-NET Consortium Chikungunya Outbreak Group Taskforce. 2020. "Chikungunya Outbreak in the Republic of the Congo, 2019—Epidemiological, Virological and Entomological Findings of a South-North Multidisciplinary Taskforce Investigation" Viruses 12, no. 9: 1020. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12091020

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop