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Review

The Evolution, Spread and Global Threat of H6Nx Avian Influenza Viruses

1
The Pirbright Institute, Woking GU24 0NF, UK
2
Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK
3
Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3SZ UK
4
Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, Hertfordshire AL9 7TA, UK
5
Department of Virology, Animal and Plant Health Agency, Addlestone KT15 3NB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(6), 673; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060673
Received: 6 May 2020 / Revised: 17 June 2020 / Accepted: 18 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Pathogenesis of Avian and Animal Influenza Viruses)
Avian influenza viruses of the subtype H6Nx are being detected globally with increasing frequency. Some H6Nx lineages are becoming enzootic in Asian poultry and sporadic incursions into European poultry are occurring more frequently. H6Nx viruses that contain mammalian adaptation motifs pose a zoonotic threat and have caused human cases. Although currently understudied globally, H6Nx avian influenza viruses pose a substantial threat to both poultry and human health. In this review we examine the current state of knowledge of H6Nx viruses including their global distribution, tropism, transmission routes and human health risk. View Full-Text
Keywords: H6Nx; avian influenza; zoonotic; pandemic; poultry; reassortment; virus evolution H6Nx; avian influenza; zoonotic; pandemic; poultry; reassortment; virus evolution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Everest, H.; Hill, S.C.; Daines, R.; Sealy, J.E.; James, J.; Hansen, R.; Iqbal, M. The Evolution, Spread and Global Threat of H6Nx Avian Influenza Viruses. Viruses 2020, 12, 673. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060673

AMA Style

Everest H, Hill SC, Daines R, Sealy JE, James J, Hansen R, Iqbal M. The Evolution, Spread and Global Threat of H6Nx Avian Influenza Viruses. Viruses. 2020; 12(6):673. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060673

Chicago/Turabian Style

Everest, Holly, Sarah C. Hill, Rebecca Daines, Joshua E. Sealy, Joe James, Rowena Hansen, and Munir Iqbal. 2020. "The Evolution, Spread and Global Threat of H6Nx Avian Influenza Viruses" Viruses 12, no. 6: 673. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060673

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