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Open AccessArticle

Replication of a Dog-Origin H6N1 Influenza Virus in Cell Culture and Mice

Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, National Taiwan Ocean University, Keelung 20224, Taiwan
School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan
Ten Giga Bio-Technology Co., Ltd., Keelung 20224, Taiwan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 704;
Received: 16 May 2020 / Revised: 28 June 2020 / Accepted: 28 June 2020 / Published: 30 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evolution and Pathogenesis of Avian and Animal Influenza Viruses)
The world’s first natural avian-origin H6N1 influenza A virus infection case in dogs was confirmed in Taiwan in 2014. The H6N1 virus in chickens has been endemic in Taiwan since 1972. Whether the dog H6N1 virus has interspecies transmission potential is the key issue we aim to understand. Following one virus passage in embryonated eggs and two further passages in MDCK cells, we obtained two virus derivatives, E01EE (PB1 739E and PB2 627E) and E01GK (PB1 739G and PB2 627K), respectively. The pathogenicity of E01EE and E01GK was investigated using plaque assay, growth dynamic analysis and cell viability quantification in cells from different animal species. The impact of amino acid mutation on PB1 739 and PB2 627 on viral ribonucleoprotein (RNP) activity was also analyzed. Further mouse infection experiments were performed. The results showed that both E01EE and E01GK decreased cell relative viability of canine MDCK cells, human A549 cells and chicken DF1 cells. E01Gk caused greater cellular harm in MDCK and A549 cells and had significantly higher virus titers in all of the cells compared to E01EE. The PB2 627K but not PB1 739G was the critical mutation that influenced the viral RNP activity. Both E01EE and E01GK caused mice pneumonia and considerable virus shedding, especially E01GK. This report verifies PB2 E627K mutation in virulence and spotlights the potential for the dog H6N1 virus to extend interspecies transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: dog; H6N1; influenza A virus; interspecies dog; H6N1; influenza A virus; interspecies
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Tsai, S.-K.; Shih, C.-H.; Chang, H.-W.; Teng, K.-H.; Hsu, W.-E.; Lin, H.-J.; Lin, H.-Y.; Huang, C.-H.; Chen, H.-W.; Wang, L.-C. Replication of a Dog-Origin H6N1 Influenza Virus in Cell Culture and Mice. Viruses 2020, 12, 704.

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