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Role of Viruses in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis

1
School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Loughborough LE12 5RD, UK
2
Insititute of Fundamental Medicine and Biology Kazan Federal University, 420008 Kazan, Russia
3
School of Medicine, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(6), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060643
Received: 24 April 2020 / Revised: 7 June 2020 / Accepted: 10 June 2020 / Published: 13 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endogenous Retroviruses in Development and Disease)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune inflammatory disease, where the underlying etiological cause remains elusive. Multiple triggering factors have been suggested, including environmental, genetic and gender components. However, underlying infectious triggers to the disease are also suspected. There is an increasing abundance of evidence supporting a viral etiology to MS, including the efficacy of interferon therapy and over-detection of viral antibodies and nucleic acids when compared with healthy patients. Several viruses have been proposed as potential triggering agents, including Epstein–Barr virus, human herpesvirus 6, varicella–zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, John Cunningham virus and human endogenous retroviruses. These viruses are all near ubiquitous and have a high prevalence in adult populations (or in the case of the retroviruses are actually part of the genome). They can establish lifelong infections with periods of reactivation, which may be linked to the relapsing nature of MS. In this review, the evidence for a role for viral infection in MS will be discussed with an emphasis on immune system activation related to MS disease pathogenesis. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; human herpesvirus 6; varicella–zoster virus; cytomegalovirus; John Cunningham virus; human endogenous retroviruses; Epstein–Barr virus multiple sclerosis; human herpesvirus 6; varicella–zoster virus; cytomegalovirus; John Cunningham virus; human endogenous retroviruses; Epstein–Barr virus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tarlinton, R.E.; Martynova, E.; Rizvanov, A.A.; Khaiboullina, S.; Verma, S. Role of Viruses in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis. Viruses 2020, 12, 643. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060643

AMA Style

Tarlinton RE, Martynova E, Rizvanov AA, Khaiboullina S, Verma S. Role of Viruses in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis. Viruses. 2020; 12(6):643. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060643

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tarlinton, Rachael E.; Martynova, Ekaterina; Rizvanov, Albert A.; Khaiboullina, Svetlana; Verma, Subhash. 2020. "Role of Viruses in the Pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis" Viruses 12, no. 6: 643. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12060643

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