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Human Endogenous Retrovirus K in Cancer: A Potential Biomarker and Immunotherapeutic Target

1
Programa de Oncovirologia, Instituto Nacional de Câncer, Rio de Janeiro RJ 20231-050, Brazil
2
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY 10065, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Those authors contributed equally to the work.
Viruses 2020, 12(7), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12070726
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 26 June 2020 / Accepted: 29 June 2020 / Published: 6 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endogenous Retroviruses in Development and Disease)
In diseases where epigenetic mechanisms are changed, such as cancer, many genes show altered gene expression and inhibited genes become activated. Human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) expression is usually inhibited in normal cells from healthy adults. In tumor cells, however, HERV-K mRNA expression has been frequently documented to increase. Importantly, HERV-K-derived proteins can act as tumor-specific antigens, a class of neoantigens, and induce immune responses in different types of cancer. In this review, we describe the function of the HERV-K HML-2 subtype in carcinogenesis as biomarkers, and their potential as targets for cancer immunotherapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: HERV; HERV-K; HML-2 subtype; endogenous retrovirus; oncogenesis; cancer; neoantigen; tumor-specific antigens; immune response; immunotherapy HERV; HERV-K; HML-2 subtype; endogenous retrovirus; oncogenesis; cancer; neoantigen; tumor-specific antigens; immune response; immunotherapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Curty, G.; Marston, J.L.; de Mulder Rougvie, M.; Leal, F.E.; Nixon, D.F.; Soares, M.A. Human Endogenous Retrovirus K in Cancer: A Potential Biomarker and Immunotherapeutic Target. Viruses 2020, 12, 726.

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