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Survey on Non-Human Primates and Mosquitoes Does not Provide Evidences of Spillover/Spillback between the Urban and Sylvatic Cycles of Yellow Fever and Zika Viruses Following Severe Outbreaks in Southeast Brazil

1
Laboratório de Mosquitos Transmissores de Hematozoários, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil
2
Instituto Federal do Norte de Minas Gerais, Salinas 39560-000, Brazil
3
Laboratório de Tecnologia Virológica, Instituto de Tecnologia em Imunobiológicos Bio-Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil
4
UMR BIPAR, Animal Health Laboratory, ANSES, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
5
Laboratório de Biologia Molecular de Flavivirus, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil
6
Divisão de Vigilância Ambiental em Saúde, Secretaria de Saúde do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre 90610-000, Brazil
7
MIVEGEC, CNRS, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Université de Montpellier, 34394 Montpellier, France
8
Núcleo de Atendimento e Pesquisa de Animais Silvestres, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus 45662-900, Brazil
9
Laboratório de Tecnologia Imunológica, Instituto de Tecnologia em Imunobiológicos Bio-Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil
10
Laboratório de Imunologia Viral, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil
11
Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Ministério da Saúde, Brasília 70719-040, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(4), 364; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12040364
Received: 23 December 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 16 February 2020 / Published: 26 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Arboviruses)
In the last decade, Flaviviruses such as yellow fever (YFV) and Zika (ZIKV) have expanded their transmission areas. These viruses originated in Africa, where they exhibit both sylvatic and interhuman transmission cycles. In Brazil, the risk of YFV urbanization has grown, with the sylvatic transmission approaching the most densely populated metropolis, while concern about ZIKV spillback to a sylvatic cycle has risen. To investigate these health threats, we carried out extensive collections and arbovirus screening of 144 free-living, non-human primates (NHPs) and 5219 mosquitoes before, during, and after ZIKV and YFV outbreaks (2015–2018) in southeast Brazil. ZIKV infection was not detected in any NHP collected at any time. In contrast, current and previous YFV infections were detected in NHPs sampled between 2017 and 2018, but not before the onset of the YFV outbreak. Mosquito pools screened by high-throughput PCR were positive for YFV when captured in the wild and during the YFV outbreak, but were negative for 94 other arboviruses, including ZIKV, regardless of the time of collection. In conclusion, there was no evidence of YFV transmission in coastal southeast Brazil before the current outbreak, nor the spread or establishment of an independent sylvatic cycle of ZIKV or urban Aedes aegypti transmission of YFV in the region. In view of the region’s receptivity and vulnerability to arbovirus transmission, surveillance of NHPs and mosquitoes should be strengthened and continuous. View Full-Text
Keywords: arboviruses; Flavivirus; serology; PRNT; high throughput real time PCR arboviruses; Flavivirus; serology; PRNT; high throughput real time PCR
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Abreu, F.V.S.; Ferreira-de-Brito, A.; Azevedo, A.S.; Linhares, J.H.R.; de Oliveira Santos, V.; Hime Miranda, E.; Neves, M.S.A.S.; Yousfi, L.; Ribeiro, I.P.; Santos, A.A.C.; dos Santos, E.; Santos, T.P.; Teixeira, D.S.; Gomes, M.Q.; Fernandes, C.B.; Silva, A.M.V.; Lima, M.R.Q.; Paupy, C.; Romano, A.P.M.; Ano Bom, A.P.D.; Oliveira-Pinto, L.M.; Moutailler, S.; Motta, M.A.; Castro, M.G.; Bonaldo, M.C.; Maria Barbosa de Lima, S.; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, R. Survey on Non-Human Primates and Mosquitoes Does not Provide Evidences of Spillover/Spillback between the Urban and Sylvatic Cycles of Yellow Fever and Zika Viruses Following Severe Outbreaks in Southeast Brazil. Viruses 2020, 12, 364.

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