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Article

Exposure of Wild Ungulates to the Usutu and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Viruses in France in 2009–2014: Evidence of Undetected Flavivirus Circulation a Decade Ago

1
Nancy Laboratory for Rabies and Wildlife, The French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), CS 40009 54220 Malzéville, France
2
National Hunters Federation, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France
3
Université Clermont Auvergne, INRAE, VetAgro Sup, Unité mixte de recherche Epidémiologie des maladies animales et zoonotiques (UMR EPIA), 63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France
4
Biologie et Ecologie des Organismes et Populations Sauvages (BEOPS), 1 Esplanade Compans Caffarelli, 31000 Toulouse, France
5
Centro de Investigación en Sanidad Animal, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA-CISA), 28130 Valdeolmos, Spain
6
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain
7
Unité mixte de recherche Biologie moléculaire et Immunologie Parasitaire (UMR BIPAR), ANSES, INRAE, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, Université Paris-Est, Maisons-Alfort 94700, France
8
Unité mixte de recherche (UMR) Virologie, INRAE, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d’Alfort, ANSES, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2020, 12(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010010
Received: 20 November 2019 / Revised: 13 December 2019 / Accepted: 16 December 2019 / Published: 19 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Arboviruses)
Flaviviruses have become increasingly important pathogens in Europe over the past few decades. A better understanding of the spatiotemporal distribution of flaviviruses in France is needed to better define risk areas and to gain knowledge of the dynamics of virus transmission cycles. Serum samples from 1014 wild boar and 758 roe deer from 16 departments (administrative units) in France collected from 2009 to 2014 were screened for flavivirus antibodies using a competitive ELISA (cELISA) technique. Serum samples found to be positive or doubtful by cELISA were then tested for antibodies directed against West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV), Bagaza virus (BAGV), and tick-borne encephalitis/Louping ill viruses (TBEV/LIV) by microsphere immunoassays (except BAGV) and micro-neutralization tests. USUV antibodies were detected only in southeastern and southwestern areas. TBEV/LIV antibodies were detected in serum samples from eastern, southwestern and northern departments. The results indicate continuous circulation of USUV in southern France from 2009 to 2014, which was unnoticed by the French monitoring system for bird mortality. The findings also confirm wider distribution of TBEV in the eastern part of the country than of human clinical cases. However, further studies are needed to determine the tick-borne flavivirus responsible for the seroconversion in southwestern and northern France. View Full-Text
Keywords: flavivirus; usutu virus; tick-borne encephalitis virus; west nile virus; seroprevalence; wild ruminants; roe deer; wild boar flavivirus; usutu virus; tick-borne encephalitis virus; west nile virus; seroprevalence; wild ruminants; roe deer; wild boar
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bournez, L.; Umhang, G.; Faure, E.; Boucher, J.-M.; Boué, F.; Jourdain, E.; Sarasa, M.; Llorente, F.; Jiménez-Clavero, M.A.; Moutailler, S.; Lacour, S.A.; Lecollinet, S.; Beck, C. Exposure of Wild Ungulates to the Usutu and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Viruses in France in 2009–2014: Evidence of Undetected Flavivirus Circulation a Decade Ago. Viruses 2020, 12, 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010010

AMA Style

Bournez L, Umhang G, Faure E, Boucher J-M, Boué F, Jourdain E, Sarasa M, Llorente F, Jiménez-Clavero MA, Moutailler S, Lacour SA, Lecollinet S, Beck C. Exposure of Wild Ungulates to the Usutu and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Viruses in France in 2009–2014: Evidence of Undetected Flavivirus Circulation a Decade Ago. Viruses. 2020; 12(1):10. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010010

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bournez, Laure, Gérald Umhang, Eva Faure, Jean-Marc Boucher, Franck Boué, Elsa Jourdain, Mathieu Sarasa, Francisco Llorente, Miguel A. Jiménez-Clavero, Sara Moutailler, Sandrine A. Lacour, Sylvie Lecollinet, and Cécile Beck. 2020. "Exposure of Wild Ungulates to the Usutu and Tick-Borne Encephalitis Viruses in France in 2009–2014: Evidence of Undetected Flavivirus Circulation a Decade Ago" Viruses 12, no. 1: 10. https://doi.org/10.3390/v12010010

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