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Open AccessArticle

Application of a Phage Cocktail for Control of Salmonella in Foods and Reducing Biofilms

Key Laboratory of Environment Correlative Dietology, College of Food Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Division of Food Sciences, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK
Laboratory of Bacterial Pathogenesis and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY 10065-6399, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(9), 841;
Received: 29 June 2019 / Revised: 7 September 2019 / Accepted: 8 September 2019 / Published: 10 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacteriophages and Biofilms)
Salmonella contamination in foods and their formation of biofilms in food processing facility are the primary bacterial cause of a significant number of foodborne outbreaks and infections. Broad lytic phages are promising alternatives to conventional technologies for pathogen biocontrol in food matrices and reducing biofilms. In this study, 42 Salmonella phages were isolated from environmentally-sourced water samples. We characterized the host range and lytic capacity of phages LPSTLL, LPST94 and LPST153 against Salmonella spp., and all showed a wide host range and broad lytic activity. Electron microscopy analysis indicated that LPSTLL, LPST94, and LPST153 belonged to the family of Siphoviridae, Ackermannviridae and Podoviridae, respectively. We established a phage cocktail containing three phages (LPSTLL, LPST94 and LPST153) that had broad spectrum to lyse diverse Salmonella serovars. A significant decrease was observed in Salmonella with a viable count of 3 log10 CFU in milk and chicken breast at either 25 °C or 4 °C. It was found that treatment with phage cocktail was able to significantly reduced biofilm on a 96-well microplate (44–63%) and on a stainless steel surface (5.23 to 6.42 log10). These findings demonstrated that the phage cocktail described in this study can be potentially used as a biological control agent against Salmonella in food products and also has the effect to reduce Salmonella formed biofilms. View Full-Text
Keywords: phage; cocktail; Salmonella; biological control; foods; biofilms phage; cocktail; Salmonella; biological control; foods; biofilms
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Islam, M.S.; Zhou, Y.; Liang, L.; Nime, I.; Liu, K.; Yan, T.; Wang, X.; Li, J. Application of a Phage Cocktail for Control of Salmonella in Foods and Reducing Biofilms. Viruses 2019, 11, 841.

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