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Trans-Acting RNA–RNA Interactions in Segmented RNA Viruses

Department of Biology, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080751
Received: 18 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 11 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses Ten-Year Anniversary)
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Abstract

RNA viruses represent a large and important group of pathogens that infect a broad range of hosts. Segmented RNA viruses are a subclass of this group that encode their genomes in two or more molecules and package all of their RNA segments in a single virus particle. These divided genomes come in different forms, including double-stranded RNA, coding-sense single-stranded RNA, and noncoding single-stranded RNA. Genera that possess these genome types include, respectively, Orbivirus (e.g., Bluetongue virus), Dianthovirus (e.g., Red clover necrotic mosaic virus) and Alphainfluenzavirus (e.g., Influenza A virus). Despite their distinct genomic features and diverse host ranges (i.e., animals, plants, and humans, respectively) each of these viruses uses trans-acting RNA–RNA interactions (tRRIs) to facilitate co-packaging of their segmented genome. The tRRIs occur between different viral genome segments and direct the selective packaging of a complete genome complement. Here we explore the current state of understanding of tRRI-mediated co-packaging in the abovementioned viruses and examine other known and potential functions for this class of RNA–RNA interaction. View Full-Text
Keywords: RNA structure; RNA–RNA interactions; RNA virus; RNA packaging; segmented virus; influenza virus; bluetongue virus; reovirus; red clover necrotic mosaic virus RNA structure; RNA–RNA interactions; RNA virus; RNA packaging; segmented virus; influenza virus; bluetongue virus; reovirus; red clover necrotic mosaic virus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Newburn, L.R.; White, K.A. Trans-Acting RNA–RNA Interactions in Segmented RNA Viruses. Viruses 2019, 11, 751.

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