Next Article in Journal
Equine Parvovirus-Hepatitis Frequently Detectable in Commercial Equine Serum Pools
Previous Article in Journal
West Nile Virus Associations in Wild Mammals: An Update
Previous Article in Special Issue
Manipulation of Epithelial Differentiation by HPV Oncoproteins
Article Menu
Issue 5 (May) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview

Enteroviruses: A Gut-Wrenching Game of Entry, Detection, and Evasion

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
2
Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA
3
Richard K. Mellon Institute for Pediatric Research, UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050460
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 19 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses Ten-Year Anniversary)
  |  
PDF [1330 KB, uploaded 21 May 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Enteroviruses are a major source of human disease, particularly in neonates and young children where infections can range from acute, self-limited febrile illness to meningitis, endocarditis, hepatitis, and acute flaccid myelitis. The enterovirus genus includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, enterovirus 71, and enterovirus D68. Enteroviruses primarily infect by the fecal–oral route and target the gastrointestinal epithelium early during their life cycles. In addition, spread via the respiratory tract is possible and some enteroviruses such as enterovirus D68 are preferentially spread via this route. Once internalized, enteroviruses are detected by intracellular proteins that recognize common viral features and trigger antiviral innate immune signaling. However, co-evolution of enteroviruses with humans has allowed them to develop strategies to evade detection or disrupt signaling. In this review, we will discuss how enteroviruses infect the gastrointestinal tract, the mechanisms by which cells detect enterovirus infections, and the strategies enteroviruses use to escape this detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: enteroviruses; gastrointestinal tract; pattern recognition receptors; interferon enteroviruses; gastrointestinal tract; pattern recognition receptors; interferon
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wells, A.I.; Coyne, C.B. Enteroviruses: A Gut-Wrenching Game of Entry, Detection, and Evasion. Viruses 2019, 11, 460.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top