Next Article in Journal
Equine Parvovirus-Hepatitis Frequently Detectable in Commercial Equine Serum Pools
Next Article in Special Issue
Trans-Acting RNA–RNA Interactions in Segmented RNA Viruses
Previous Article in Journal
West Nile Virus Associations in Wild Mammals: An Update
Previous Article in Special Issue
Manipulation of Epithelial Differentiation by HPV Oncoproteins
Open AccessReview

Enteroviruses: A Gut-Wrenching Game of Entry, Detection, and Evasion

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
2
Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA
3
Richard K. Mellon Institute for Pediatric Research, UPMC Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 460; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050460
Received: 9 April 2019 / Revised: 8 May 2019 / Accepted: 19 May 2019 / Published: 21 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses Ten-Year Anniversary)
Enteroviruses are a major source of human disease, particularly in neonates and young children where infections can range from acute, self-limited febrile illness to meningitis, endocarditis, hepatitis, and acute flaccid myelitis. The enterovirus genus includes poliovirus, coxsackieviruses, echoviruses, enterovirus 71, and enterovirus D68. Enteroviruses primarily infect by the fecal–oral route and target the gastrointestinal epithelium early during their life cycles. In addition, spread via the respiratory tract is possible and some enteroviruses such as enterovirus D68 are preferentially spread via this route. Once internalized, enteroviruses are detected by intracellular proteins that recognize common viral features and trigger antiviral innate immune signaling. However, co-evolution of enteroviruses with humans has allowed them to develop strategies to evade detection or disrupt signaling. In this review, we will discuss how enteroviruses infect the gastrointestinal tract, the mechanisms by which cells detect enterovirus infections, and the strategies enteroviruses use to escape this detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: enteroviruses; gastrointestinal tract; pattern recognition receptors; interferon enteroviruses; gastrointestinal tract; pattern recognition receptors; interferon
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Wells, A.I.; Coyne, C.B. Enteroviruses: A Gut-Wrenching Game of Entry, Detection, and Evasion. Viruses 2019, 11, 460.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop