Next Article in Journal
Bacteriophage-Based Biotechnological Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Production of Recombinant EAV with Tagged Structural Protein Gp3 to Study Artervirus Minor Protein Localization in Infected Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Serological Evidence of Influenza D Virus Circulation Among Cattle and Small Ruminants in France
Open AccessReview

The Development and Use of Reporter Influenza B Viruses

1
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA
2
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology (MGM), Duke University Medical Center, 213 Research Drive, 426 CARL Building, Box 3054, Durham, NC 27710, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 736; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11080736
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 31 July 2019 / Accepted: 2 August 2019 / Published: 9 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-A Influenza)
  |  
PDF [1128 KB, uploaded 13 August 2019]
  |  

Abstract

Influenza B viruses (IBVs) are major contributors to total human influenza disease, responsible for ~1/3 of all infections. These viruses, however, are relatively less studied than the related influenza A viruses (IAVs). While it has historically been assumed that the viral biology and mechanisms of pathogenesis for all influenza viruses were highly similar, studies have shown that IBVs possess unique characteristics. Relative to IAV, IBV encodes distinct viral proteins, displays a different mutational rate, has unique patterns of tropism, and elicits different immune responses. More work is therefore required to define the mechanisms of IBV pathogenesis. One valuable approach to characterize mechanisms of microbial disease is the use of genetically modified pathogens that harbor exogenous reporter genes. Over the last few years, IBV reporter viruses have been developed and used to provide new insights into the host response to infection, viral spread, and the testing of antiviral therapeutics. In this review, we will highlight the history and study of IBVs with particular emphasis on the use of genetically modified viruses and discuss some remaining gaps in knowledge that can be addressed using reporter expressing IBVs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Influenza B virus; reverse genetics; reporter virus; molecular virology; viral genetic engineering Influenza B virus; reverse genetics; reporter virus; molecular virology; viral genetic engineering
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dumm, R.E.; Heaton, N.S. The Development and Use of Reporter Influenza B Viruses. Viruses 2019, 11, 736.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top