Next Article in Journal
Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in Dromedary Camels in Africa and Middle East
Previous Article in Journal
Application of the Phage Lysin Ply5218 in the Treatment of Streptococcus suis Infection in Piglets
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evidence for West Nile Virus and Usutu Virus Infections in Wild and Resident Birds in Germany, 2017 and 2018
Open AccessArticle

Usefulness of Eurasian Magpies (Pica pica) for West Nile virus Surveillance in Non-Endemic and Endemic Situations

IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA IRTA-UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
Servei de Vigilància i Control de Plagues Urbanes, Agencia de Salud Pública de Barcelona, 08023 Barcelona, Spain
CIBER Epidemiologia y Salud Pública, CIBERESP, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Departament de Territori i Sostenibilitat, Centre de Fauna de Vallcalent, 25199 Lleida, Spain
Laboratorio Central de Veterinaria, Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación (MAPA), 28110 Algete (Madrid), Spain
Departament d’Agricultura, Ramaderia, Pesca i Alimentació Generalitat de Catalunya, Servei de Prevenció en Salut Animal, 08007 Barcelona, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(8), 716;
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 1 August 2019 / Accepted: 2 August 2019 / Published: 5 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue West Nile Virus 2019)
PDF [1342 KB, uploaded 13 August 2019]


In September 2017, passive surveillance allowed the detection of West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 for the first time in northern Spain in a northern goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). However, a cross sectional study carried out in Eurasian magpies (Pica pica) in a nearby area evidenced that WNV had been circulating two months earlier. Therefore, active surveillance in Eurasian magpies proved its effectiveness for the early detection of WNV in a non-endemic area. Further surveys in 2018 and the beginning of 2019 using young magpies (i.e., born after 2017) showed the repeated circulation of WNV in the same region in the following transmission season. Therefore, active surveillance in Eurasian magpies as well proved to be useful for the detection of WNV circulation in areas that may be considered as endemic. In this manuscript we present the results of those studies and discuss reasons that make the Eurasian magpies an ideal species for the surveillance of WNV, both in endemic and non-endemic areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: West Nile virus; Eurasian magpies; wild birds; sentinels; surveillance West Nile virus; Eurasian magpies; wild birds; sentinels; surveillance

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Napp, S.; Montalvo, T.; Piñol-Baena, C.; Gómez-Martín, M.B.; Nicolás-Francisco, O.; Soler, M.; Busquets, N. Usefulness of Eurasian Magpies (Pica pica) for West Nile virus Surveillance in Non-Endemic and Endemic Situations. Viruses 2019, 11, 716.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top