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Genomic, Morphological and Biological Traits of the Viruses Infecting Major Fruit Trees

by Muhammad Umer 1,2,3,†, Jiwen Liu 1,2,3,†, Huafeng You 1,2,3, Chuan Xu 1,2,3, Kaili Dong 1,2,3, Ni Luo 4,5, Linghong Kong 1,2,3, Xuepei Li 1,2,3, Ni Hong 1,2,3, Guoping Wang 1,2,3, Xudong Fan 6, Ioly Kotta-Loizou 7,* and Wenxing Xu 1,2,3,4,5,*
State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Wuhan 430070, China
Lab of Key Lab of Plant Pathology of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430070, China
College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology (Ministry of Education), College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China
Key Laboratory of Horticultural Crop (Fruit Trees) Biology and Germplasm Creation of the Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430070, China
National Center for Eliminating Viruses from Deciduous Fruit Trees, Research Institute of Pomology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Xingcheng 125100, China
Department of Life Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(6), 515;
Received: 6 April 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
Banana trees, citrus fruit trees, pome fruit trees, grapevines, mango trees, and stone fruit trees are major fruit trees cultured worldwide and correspond to nearly 90% of the global production of woody fruit trees. In light of the above, the present manuscript summarizes the viruses that infect the major fruit trees, including their taxonomy and morphology, and highlights selected viruses that significantly affect fruit production, including their genomic and biological features. The results showed that a total of 163 viruses, belonging to 45 genera classified into 23 families have been reported to infect the major woody fruit trees. It is clear that there is higher accumulation of viruses in grapevine (80/163) compared to the other fruit trees (each corresponding to less than 35/163), while only one virus species has been reported infecting mango. Most of the viruses (over 70%) infecting woody fruit trees are positive-sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA), and the remainder belong to the -ssRNA, ssRNA-RT, dsRNA, ssDNA and dsDNA-RT groups (each corresponding to less than 8%). Most of the viruses are icosahedral or isometric (79/163), and their diameter ranges from 16 to 80 nm with the majority being 25–30 nm. Cross-infection has occurred in a high frequency among pome and stone fruit trees, whereas no or little cross-infection has occurred among banana, citrus and grapevine. The viruses infecting woody fruit trees are mostly transmitted by vegetative propagation, grafting, and root grafting in orchards and are usually vectored by mealybug, soft scale, aphids, mites or thrips. These viruses cause adverse effects in their fruit tree hosts, inducing a wide range of symptoms and significant damage, such as reduced yield, quality, vigor and longevity. View Full-Text
Keywords: fruit trees; virus; viral disease; taxonomy; viral genome; virion morphology; biological features fruit trees; virus; viral disease; taxonomy; viral genome; virion morphology; biological features
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Umer, M.; Liu, J.; You, H.; Xu, C.; Dong, K.; Luo, N.; Kong, L.; Li, X.; Hong, N.; Wang, G.; Fan, X.; Kotta-Loizou, I.; Xu, W. Genomic, Morphological and Biological Traits of the Viruses Infecting Major Fruit Trees. Viruses 2019, 11, 515.

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