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Heterogeneity and Architecture of Pathological Prion Protein Assemblies: Time to Revisit the Molecular Basis of the Prion Replication Process?

1
Molecular Virology and Immunology Unit (VIM), INRA, Université Paris-Saclay, 78350 Jouy-en-Josas, France
2
Laboratory of Physical Chemistry (LCP), UMR 8000 CNRS, Université Paris Sud, 91400 Orsay, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(5), 429; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11050429
Received: 17 April 2019 / Revised: 7 May 2019 / Accepted: 8 May 2019 / Published: 10 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deciphering the Molecular Targets of Prion and Prion-Like Strains)
Prions are proteinaceous infectious agents responsible for a range of neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans. Prion particles are assemblies formed from a misfolded, β-sheet rich, aggregation-prone isoform (PrPSc) of the host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC). Prions replicate by recruiting and converting PrPC into PrPSc, by an autocatalytic process. PrPSc is a pleiomorphic protein as different conformations can dictate different disease phenotypes in the same host species. This is the basis of the strain phenomenon in prion diseases. Recent experimental evidence suggests further structural heterogeneity in PrPSc assemblies within specific prion populations and strains. Still, this diversity is rather seen as a size continuum of assemblies with the same core structure, while analysis of the available experimental data points to the existence of structurally distinct arrangements. The atomic structure of PrPSc has not been elucidated so far, making the prion replication process difficult to understand. All currently available models suggest that PrPSc assemblies exhibit a PrPSc subunit as core constituent, which was recently identified. This review summarizes our current knowledge on prion assembly heterogeneity down to the subunit level and will discuss its importance with regard to the current molecular principles of the prion replication process. View Full-Text
Keywords: prion; PrP; amyloid; quasi-species; dynamics prion; PrP; amyloid; quasi-species; dynamics
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Igel-Egalon, A.; Bohl, J.; Moudjou, M.; Herzog, L.; Reine, F.; Rezaei, H.; Béringue, V. Heterogeneity and Architecture of Pathological Prion Protein Assemblies: Time to Revisit the Molecular Basis of the Prion Replication Process? Viruses 2019, 11, 429.

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