Viruses manipulate numerous host factors and cellular pathways to facilitate the replication of viral genomes and the production of infectious progeny. One way in which viruses interact with cells is through the utilization and exploitation of the host lipid metabolism. While it is likely that most—if not all—viruses require lipids or intermediates of lipid synthesis to replicate, many viruses also actively induce lipid metabolic pathways to sustain a favorable replication environment. From the formation of membranous replication compartments, to the generation of ATP or protein modifications, viruses exhibit differing requirements for host lipids. Thus, while the exploitation of lipid metabolism is a common replication strategy, diverse viruses employ a plethora of mechanisms to co-opt these critical cellular pathways. Here, we review recent literature regarding the exploitation of host lipids and lipid metabolism specifically by DNA viruses. Importantly, furthering the understanding of the viral requirements for host lipids may offer new targets for antiviral therapeutics and provide opportunities to repurpose the numerous FDA-approved compounds targeting lipid metabolic pathways as antiviral agents.
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