It is known that levels of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin are reduced during Murine norovirus
MNV-1 and Feline calicivirus
(FCV) infection as part of the apoptosis establishment required for virus release and propagation in the host. Recently, our group has reported that overexpression of survivin causes a reduction of FCV protein synthesis and viral progeny production, suggesting that survivin may affect early steps of the replicative cycle. Using immunofluorescence assays, we observed that overexpression of survivin, resulted in the reduction of FCV infection not only in transfected but also in the neighboring nontransfected CrFK cells, thus suggesting autocrine and paracrine protective effects. Cells treated with the supernatants collected from CrFK cells overexpressing survivin showed a reduction in FCV but not MNV-1 protein production and viral yield, suggesting that FCV binding and/or entry were specifically altered. The reduced ability of FCV to bind to the surface of the cells overexpressing survivin, or treated with the supernatants collected from these cells, correlate with the reduction in the cell surface of the FCV receptor, the feline junctional adhesion molecule (fJAM) 1, while no effect was observed in the cells transfected with the pAm-Cyan vector or in cells treated with the corresponding supernatants. Moreover, the overexpression of survivin affects neither Vaccinia
virus (VACV) production in CrFK cells nor MNV-1 virus production in RAW 267.4 cells, indicating that the effect is specific for FCV. All of these results taken together indicate that cells that overexpress survivin, or cell treatment with the conditioned medium from these cells, results in the reduction of the fJAM-1 molecule and, therefore, a specific reduction in FCV entry and infection.
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