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Phylodynamic and Phylogeographic Analysis of Hepatitis Delta Virus Genotype 3 Isolated in South America

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Oswaldo Cruz Foundation of Rondônia—FIOCRUZ/RO, Porto Velho RO 76812 245, Rondônia, Brazil
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Research Center in Tropical Medicine of Rondônia -CEPEM/RO, Porto Velho RO 76812 329, Rondônia, Brazil
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National Institute of Epidemiology of Western Amazonia—INCT EpiAmO, Porto Velho RO 76812 245, Rondônia, Brazil
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Postgraduate Program in Experimental Biology of the Federal University of Rondônia—PGBIOEXP/UNIR, Porto Velho RO 76801 059, Rondônia, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 995; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11110995
Received: 21 July 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 29 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a globally distributed agent, and its genetic variability allows for it to be organized into eight genotypes with different geographic distributions. In South America, genotype 3 (HDV-3) is frequently isolated and responsible for the most severe form of infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of HDV-3 over the years and to describe its distribution throughout this continent in an evolutionary perspective. While using Bayesian analysis, with strains being deposited in the Nucleotide database, the most recent common ancestor was dated back to 1964 and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the dispersion may have started in Brazil, spreading to Venezuela and then to Colombia, respectively. Exponential growth in the effective number of infections was observed between the 1950s and 1970s, years after the first report of the presence of HDV on the continent, during the Labrea Black Fever outbreak, which showed that the virus continued to spread, increasing the number of cases decades after the first reports. Subsequently, the analysis showed a decrease in the epidemiological levels of HDV, which was probably due to the implantation of the vaccine against its helper virus, hepatitis B virus, and serological screening methods implemented in the blood banks. View Full-Text
Keywords: hepatitis delta virus; HDV-3; phylodynamics; evolutionary dynamics hepatitis delta virus; HDV-3; phylodynamics; evolutionary dynamics
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Nogueira-Lima, F.S.; Botelho-Souza, L.F.; Roca, T.P.; Santos, A.O.; Oliveira, S.C.; Queiroz, J.A.S.; Santos-Alves, F.A.G.; Salcedo, J.M.V.; Vieira, D.S. Phylodynamic and Phylogeographic Analysis of Hepatitis Delta Virus Genotype 3 Isolated in South America. Viruses 2019, 11, 995.

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