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Open AccessArticle

Contribution of Host Immune Responses Against Influenza D Virus Infection Toward Secondary Bacterial Infection in a Mouse Model

1
Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD 57069, USA
2
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA
3
Department of Biology and Microbiology, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Viruses 2019, 11(11), 994; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11110994
Received: 4 September 2019 / Revised: 22 October 2019 / Accepted: 25 October 2019 / Published: 29 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-A Influenza)
Influenza D viruses (IDV) are known to co-circulate with viral and bacterial pathogens in cattle and other ruminants. Currently, there is limited knowledge regarding host responses to IDV infection and whether IDV infection affects host susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections. To begin to address this gap in knowledge, the current study utilized a combination of in vivo and in vitro approaches to evaluate host cellular responses against primary IDV infection and secondary bacterial infection with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Primary IDV infection in mice did not result in clinical signs of disease and it did not enhance the susceptibility to secondary S. aureus infection. Rather, IDV infection appeared to protect mice from the usual clinical features of secondary bacterial infection, as demonstrated by improved weight loss, survival, and recovery when compared to S. aureus infection alone. We found a notable increase in IFN-β expression following IDV infection while utilizing human alveolar epithelial A549 cells to analyze early anti-viral responses to IDV infection. These results demonstrate for the first time that IDV infection does not increase the susceptibility to secondary bacterial infection with S. aureus, with evidence that anti-viral immune responses during IDV infection might protect the host against these potentially deadly outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: influenza D virus; secondary bacterial infection; interferon; macrophages influenza D virus; secondary bacterial infection; interferon; macrophages
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Skelton, R.M.; Shepardson, K.M.; Hatton, A.; Wilson, P.T.; Sreenivasan, C.; Yu, J.; Wang, D.; Huber, V.C.; Rynda-Apple, A. Contribution of Host Immune Responses Against Influenza D Virus Infection Toward Secondary Bacterial Infection in a Mouse Model. Viruses 2019, 11, 994.

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