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How Central Is the Domestic Pig in the Epidemiological Cycle of Japanese Encephalitis Virus? A Review of Scientific Evidence and Implications for Disease Control

1
Epidemiology Unit, Laboratory for Animal Health, French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health and Safety (ANSES), University Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France
2
Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD), UMR ASTRE, F-34090 Montpellier, France
3
Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Institut Pasteur International Network, PO Box 983, Phnom Penh 12201, Cambodia
4
Epidemiology and Public Health Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Institut Pasteur International Network, PO Box 983, Phnom Penh 12201, Cambodia
5
Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD), UMR ASTRE, Phnom Penh 12201, Cambodia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 949; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100949
Received: 30 August 2019 / Revised: 4 October 2019 / Accepted: 11 October 2019 / Published: 15 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Porcine Viruses 2019)
Despite the existence of human vaccines, Japanese encephalitis (JE) remains the leading cause of human encephalitis in Asia. Pigs are described as the main amplifying host, but their role in JE epidemiology needs to be reassessed in order to identify and implement efficient control strategies, for both human and animal health. We aimed to provide a systematic review of publications linked to JE in swine, in terms of both individual and population characteristics of JE virus (JEV) infection and circulation, as well as observed epidemiological patterns. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement to select and analyze relevant articles from the Scopus database, 127 of which were included in the review. Pigs are central, but the implication of secondary hosts cannot be ruled out and should be further investigated. Although human vaccination cannot eradicate the virus, it is clearly the most important means of preventing human disease. However, a better understanding of the actual involvement of domestic pigs as well as other potential JEV hosts in different JEV epidemiological cycles and patterns could help to identify additional/complementary control measures, either by targeting pigs or not, and in some specific epidemiological contexts, contribute to reduce virus circulation and protect humans from JEV infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: Japanese encephalitis virus; pig; epidemiology; control Japanese encephalitis virus; pig; epidemiology; control
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ladreyt, H.; Durand, B.; Dussart, P.; Chevalier, V. How Central Is the Domestic Pig in the Epidemiological Cycle of Japanese Encephalitis Virus? A Review of Scientific Evidence and Implications for Disease Control. Viruses 2019, 11, 949.

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