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Open AccessArticle

Molecular Surveillance of EHV-1 Strains Circulating in France during and after the Major 2009 Outbreak in Normandy Involving Respiratory Infection, Neurological Disorder, and Abortion

1
LABÉO Frank Duncombe, 14280 Saint-Contest, France
2
NORMANDIE UNIV, UNICAEN, BIOTARGEN, 14000 Caen, France
3
Irish Equine Centre, Johnstown, Naas, County Kildare, W91 RH93, Ireland
4
RESPE, 14280 Saint-Contest, France
5
Clinique équine de la Boisrie, 61500, Chailloué, France
6
Equi Focus Point Belgium, 8900 Ypres, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
The authors have contributed equally to the work
Viruses 2019, 11(10), 916; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11100916
Received: 14 August 2019 / Revised: 28 September 2019 / Accepted: 1 October 2019 / Published: 4 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Equine Viruses)
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) is an Alphaherpesvirus infecting not only horses but also other equid and non-equid mammals. It can cause respiratory distress, stillbirth and neonatal death, abortion, and neurological disease. The different forms of disease induced by EHV-1 infection can have dramatic consequences on the equine industry, and thus the virus represents a great challenge for the equine and scientific community. This report describes the progress of a major EHV-1 outbreak that took place in Normandy in 2009, during which the three forms of disease were observed. A collection of EHV-1 strains isolated in France and Belgium from 2012 to 2018 were subsequently genetically analysed in order to characterise EHV-1 strain circulation. The open reading frame 30 (ORF30) non-neuropathogenic associated mutation A2254 was the most represented among 148 samples analysed in this study. ORF30 was also sequenced for 14 strains and compared to previously published sequences. Finally, a more global phylogenetic approach was performed based on a recently described Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) method. French and Belgian strains were clustered with known strains isolated in United Kingdom and Ireland, with no correlation between the phylogeny and the time of collection or location. This new MLST approach could be a tool to help understand epidemics in stud farms.
Keywords: equine herpesvirus type 1; outbreak; respiratory disease; abortion; neuropathogenic strain; myeloencephalopathy; phylogeny; ORF30; MLST equine herpesvirus type 1; outbreak; respiratory disease; abortion; neuropathogenic strain; myeloencephalopathy; phylogeny; ORF30; MLST
MDPI and ACS Style

Sutton, G.; Garvey, M.; Cullinane, A.; Jourdan, M.; Fortier, C.; Moreau, P.; Foursin, M.; Gryspeerdt, A.; Maisonnier, V.; Marcillaud-Pitel, C.; Legrand, L.; Paillot, R.; Pronost, S. Molecular Surveillance of EHV-1 Strains Circulating in France during and after the Major 2009 Outbreak in Normandy Involving Respiratory Infection, Neurological Disorder, and Abortion. Viruses 2019, 11, 916.

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