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Viruses 2018, 10(7), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070360

Anti-Infectivity against Herpes Simplex Virus and Selected Microbes and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Compounds Isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill.

1
Department of Natural Drugs, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackého třída 1946/1, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
2
Department of Molecular Biology and Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Palackého třída 1946/1, 612 42 Brno, Czech Republic
3
Department of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
4
Department of Quality of Agricultural Products, Faculty of Agrobiology, Food and Natural Resources, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6-Suchdol, Czech Republic
5
Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padua, Via F. Marzolo 5, 351 31 Padua, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2018 / Revised: 27 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 6 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Natural Products in HSV Research)
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Abstract

Herpes simplex virus (HSV) causes numerous mild-to-serious human diseases, including mucocutaneous herpes infections and life-threatening herpes encephalitis. Moreover, herpes viral lesions can be complicated by inflammation and secondary bacterial infections. The development of resistance to antiviral drugs along with the undesirable side effects of these drugs are relevant argue for the development of new anti-HSV drugs with diverse mechanisms of action. Eucalyptus extracts have been used for decades to combat various infectious diseases. We isolated and studied 12 pure compounds and one mixture of two constitutional isomers from the leaves and twigs of E. globulus. The structures were identified by spectroscopic methods (NMR, HR-MS, IR) and all of them were tested for antiherpetic activity against the replication of antigen types HSV-1 and HSV-2. Tereticornate A (12) (IC50: 0.96 μg/mL; selectivity index CC50/IC50: 218.8) showed the strongest activity in the anti-HSV-1 assay, even greater than acyclovir (IC50: 1.92 μg/mL; selectivity index CC50/IC50: 109.4), a standard antiviral drug. Cypellocarpin C (5) (EC50: 0.73 μg/mL; selectivity index CC50/EC50: 287.7) showed the most potent anti-HSV-2 activity, also more intensive than acyclovir (EC50: 1.75 μg/mL; selectivity index CC50/EC50: 120.0). The antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds was also evaluated against the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the yeast Candida albicans. The anti-inflammatory potential was examined using LPS-stimulated THP-1-XBlue™-MD2-CD14 and THP-1 macrophages and focusing on the influences of the NF-κB/AP-1 activity and the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α. View Full-Text
Keywords: Eucalyptus; antiherpetic; HSV-1; HSV-2; antibacterial; anti-inflammatory; NF-κB/AP-1; IL-1β; TNF-α; ROS Eucalyptus; antiherpetic; HSV-1; HSV-2; antibacterial; anti-inflammatory; NF-κB/AP-1; IL-1β; TNF-α; ROS
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Brezáni, V.; Leláková, V.; Hassan, S.T.S.; Berchová-Bímová, K.; Nový, P.; Klouček, P.; Maršík, P.; Dall’Acqua, S.; Hošek, J.; Šmejkal, K. Anti-Infectivity against Herpes Simplex Virus and Selected Microbes and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Compounds Isolated from Eucalyptus globulus Labill.. Viruses 2018, 10, 360.

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