Next Article in Journal
Allelic RNA Motifs in Regulating Systemic Trafficking of Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid
Next Article in Special Issue
Baculovirus PTP2 Functions as a Pro-Apoptotic Protein
Previous Article in Journal
1st German Phage Symposium—Conference Report
Previous Article in Special Issue
Conflict in the Intracellular Lives of Endosymbionts and Viruses: A Mechanistic Look at Wolbachia-Mediated Pathogen-blocking
Opinion

Honey Bee Antiviral Immune Barriers as Affected by Multiple Stress Factors: A Novel Paradigm to Interpret Colony Health Decline and Collapse

1
Dipartimento di Scienze AgroAlimentari, Ambientali e Animali, Università degli Studi di Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Agraria—Laboratorio di Entomologia “E. Tremblay”, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, 80055 Portici (Napoli), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040159
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Defense in Invertebrates)
Any attempt to outline a logical framework in which to interpret the honey bee health decline and its contribution to elevated colony losses should recognize the importance of the multifactorial nature of the responsible syndrome and provide a functional model as a basis for defining and testing working hypotheses. We propose that covert infections by deformed wing virus (DWV) represent a sword of Damocles permanently threatening the survival of honey bee colonies and suggest that any factor affecting the honey bee’s antiviral defenses can turn this pathogen into a killer. Here we discuss the available experimental evidence in the framework of a model based on honey bee immune competence as affected by multiple stress factors that is proposed as a conceptual tool for analyzing bee mortality and its underlying mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: deformed wing virus; microbiota; multiple interactions; mutualistic symbiosis; NF-κB; nutrition; Varroa destructor deformed wing virus; microbiota; multiple interactions; mutualistic symbiosis; NF-κB; nutrition; Varroa destructor
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nazzi, F.; Pennacchio, F. Honey Bee Antiviral Immune Barriers as Affected by Multiple Stress Factors: A Novel Paradigm to Interpret Colony Health Decline and Collapse. Viruses 2018, 10, 159. https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040159

AMA Style

Nazzi F, Pennacchio F. Honey Bee Antiviral Immune Barriers as Affected by Multiple Stress Factors: A Novel Paradigm to Interpret Colony Health Decline and Collapse. Viruses. 2018; 10(4):159. https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040159

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nazzi, Francesco, and Francesco Pennacchio. 2018. "Honey Bee Antiviral Immune Barriers as Affected by Multiple Stress Factors: A Novel Paradigm to Interpret Colony Health Decline and Collapse" Viruses 10, no. 4: 159. https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040159

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop