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Honey Bee Antiviral Immune Barriers as Affected by Multiple Stress Factors: A Novel Paradigm to Interpret Colony Health Decline and Collapse

1
Dipartimento di Scienze AgroAlimentari, Ambientali e Animali, Università degli Studi di Udine, 33100 Udine, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Agraria—Laboratorio di Entomologia “E. Tremblay”, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, 80055 Portici (Napoli), Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10040159
Received: 26 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antiviral Defense in Invertebrates)
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Abstract

Any attempt to outline a logical framework in which to interpret the honey bee health decline and its contribution to elevated colony losses should recognize the importance of the multifactorial nature of the responsible syndrome and provide a functional model as a basis for defining and testing working hypotheses. We propose that covert infections by deformed wing virus (DWV) represent a sword of Damocles permanently threatening the survival of honey bee colonies and suggest that any factor affecting the honey bee’s antiviral defenses can turn this pathogen into a killer. Here we discuss the available experimental evidence in the framework of a model based on honey bee immune competence as affected by multiple stress factors that is proposed as a conceptual tool for analyzing bee mortality and its underlying mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: deformed wing virus; microbiota; multiple interactions; mutualistic symbiosis; NF-κB; nutrition; Varroa destructor deformed wing virus; microbiota; multiple interactions; mutualistic symbiosis; NF-κB; nutrition; Varroa destructor
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Nazzi, F.; Pennacchio, F. Honey Bee Antiviral Immune Barriers as Affected by Multiple Stress Factors: A Novel Paradigm to Interpret Colony Health Decline and Collapse. Viruses 2018, 10, 159.

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