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Viruses 2018, 10(12), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120697

Chrysoviruses in Magnaporthe oryzae

1
Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8, Saiwaicho, Fuchu, Tokyo 184-8509, Japan
2
Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Department of Applied Biological Sciences, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8, Saiwaicho, Fuchu, Tokyo 184-8509, Japan
3
Department of Plant Protection, College of Agriculture & Applied Biology, Can tho University, Can tho city 900000, Vietnam
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 6 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycoviruses)
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Abstract

Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungus that causes rice blast, is the most destructive pathogen of rice worldwide. A number of M. oryzae mycoviruses have been identified. These include Magnaporthe oryzae. viruses 1, 2, and 3 (MoV1, MoV2, and MoV3) belonging to the genus, Victorivirus, in the family, Totiviridae; Magnaporthe oryzae. partitivirus 1 (MoPV1) in the family, Partitiviridae; Magnaporthe oryzae. chrysovirus 1 strains A and B (MoCV1-A and MoCV1-B) belonging to cluster II of the family, Chrysoviridae; a mycovirus related to plant viruses of the family, Tombusviridae (Magnaporthe oryzae. virus A); and a (+)ssRNA mycovirus closely related to the ourmia-like viruses (Magnaporthe oryzae. ourmia-like virus 1). Among these, MoCV1-A and MoCV1-B were the first reported mycoviruses that cause hypovirulence traits in their host fungus, such as impaired growth, altered colony morphology, and reduced pigmentation. Recently we reported that, although MoCV1-A infection generally confers hypovirulence to fungi, it is also a driving force behind the development of physiological diversity, including pathogenic races. Another example of modulated pathogenicity caused by mycovirus infection is that of Alternaria alternata chrysovirus 1 (AaCV1), which is closely related to MoCV1-A. AaCV1 exhibits two contrasting effects: Impaired growth of the host fungus while rendering the host hypervirulent to the plant, through increased production of the host-specific AK-toxin. It is inferred that these mycoviruses might be epigenetic factors that cause changes in the pathogenicity of phytopathogenic fungi. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycovirus; rice blast fungus; Magnaporthe oryzae. chrysovirus 1; double-stranded RNA virus; hypovirulence Mycovirus; rice blast fungus; Magnaporthe oryzae. chrysovirus 1; double-stranded RNA virus; hypovirulence
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Moriyama, H.; Urayama, S.-I.; Higashiura, T.; Le, T.M.; Komatsu, K. Chrysoviruses in Magnaporthe oryzae. Viruses 2018, 10, 697.

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