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Viruses 2018, 10(12), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120696

Comparative Analysis of Different Serological and Molecular Tests for the Detection of Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs) in Belgian Sheep and Goats

1
Unit of Enzootic, Vector-Borne and Bee Diseases, Sciensano, Groeselenberg 99, 1180 Brussels, Belgium
2
Dierengezondheidszorg Vlaanderen (DGZ), Industrielaan 29, 8820 Torhout, Belgium
3
Association Régionale de Santé et d’Identification Animales (ARSIA), Allée des Artisans 2, 5590 Ciney, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 5 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nonprimate Lentivirus)
Full-Text   |   PDF [248 KB, uploaded 8 December 2018]

Abstract

Countries rely on good diagnostic tests and appropriate testing schemes to fight against economically important small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) infections. We undertook an extensive comparative analysis of seven commercially available serological tests and one in-house real-time PCR (qPCR) detecting genotype A and B strains using a large panel of representative Belgian field samples and samples from experimentally infected sheep and goats. ELISAs generally performed well and detected seroconversion within three weeks post experimental infection. Two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) (Elitest and IDscreen® kits) showed the highest sensitivities (>96%) and specificities (>95%) in both species, and their combined use allowed to correctly identify the infection status of all animals. Individual agar gel immunodiffusion (AGIDs) kits lacked sensitivity, but interestingly, the combined use of both kits had a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. qPCRs detected SRLV infection before seroconversion at two weeks post infection and showed a specificity of 100%. Sensitivity however remained suboptimal at 85%. These results allow to propose a faster and cheaper diagnostic testing strategy for Belgium by combining a first ELISA screening, followed by confirmation of positive samples in AGID and/or a second ELISA. Since genotypes A and B strains are predominant in many countries, these results are interesting for other countries implementing SRLV control programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Maedi-Visna virus; caprine arthritis encephalitis virus; small ruminant lentiviruses; diagnosis; ELISA; agar gel immunodiffusion; qPCR; Belgium; control programme Maedi-Visna virus; caprine arthritis encephalitis virus; small ruminant lentiviruses; diagnosis; ELISA; agar gel immunodiffusion; qPCR; Belgium; control programme
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Michiels, R.; Van Mael, E.; Quinet, C.; Adjadj, N.R.; Cay, A.B.; De Regge, N. Comparative Analysis of Different Serological and Molecular Tests for the Detection of Small Ruminant Lentiviruses (SRLVs) in Belgian Sheep and Goats. Viruses 2018, 10, 696.

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