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Immunocompetent and Immunodeficient Mouse Models for Enterovirus 71 Pathogenesis and Therapy

1
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan
2
Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 674; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120674
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 23 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 November 2018 / Published: 28 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Models for Viral Diseases)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a global health threat. Children infected with EV71 could develop hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), encephalitis, paralysis, pulmonary edema, and death. At present, no effective treatment for EV71 is available. We reviewed here various mouse models for EV71 pathogenesis and therapy. Earlier studies relied on the use of mouse-adapted EV71 strains. To avoid artificial mutations arising de novo during the serial passages, recent studies used EV71 clinical isolates without adaptation. Several human receptors for EV71 were shown to facilitate viral entry in cell culture. However, in vivo infection with human SCARB2 receptor transgenic mice appeared to be more limited to certain strains and genotypes of EV71. Efficacy of oral infection in these transgenic models is extremely low. Intriguingly, despite the lack of human receptors, immunodeficient neonatal mouse models can still be infected with EV71 clinical isolates via oral or intraperitoneal routes. Crossbreeding between SCARB2 transgenic and stat1 knockout mice generated a more sensitive and user-friendly hybrid mouse model. Infected hybrid mice developed a higher incidence and earlier onset of CNS disease and death. Different pathogenesis profiles were observed in models deficient in various arms of innate or humoral immunity. These models are being actively used for antiviral research. View Full-Text
Keywords: Enterovirus 71; EV71; EV-A71; animal models; pathogenesis; therapy Enterovirus 71; EV71; EV-A71; animal models; pathogenesis; therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shih, C.; Liao, C.-C.; Chang, Y.-S.; Wu, S.-Y.; Chang, C.-S.; Liou, A.-T. Immunocompetent and Immunodeficient Mouse Models for Enterovirus 71 Pathogenesis and Therapy. Viruses 2018, 10, 674.

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