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Open AccessArticle

Genome-Wide Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Insights into the Response to Citrus bark cracking viroid (CBCVd) in Hop (Humulus lupulus L.)

1
Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Department of Molecular Genetics, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Branišovská 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
2
Department of Agronomy, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
Biology Centre of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Department of Plant Biophysics and Biochemistry, Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, Branišovská 31, 370 05 Ceske Budejovice, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 570; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100570
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 12 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 18 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viroid-2018: International Conference on Viroids and Viroid-Like RNAs)
Viroids are smallest known pathogen that consist of non-capsidated, single-stranded non-coding RNA replicons and they exploits host factors for their replication and propagation. The severe stunting disease caused by Citrus bark cracking viroid (CBCVd) is a serious threat, which spreads rapidly within hop gardens. In this study, we employed comprehensive transcriptome analyses to dissect host-viroid interactions and identify gene expression changes that are associated with disease development in hop. Our analysis revealed that CBCVd-infection resulted in the massive modulation of activity of over 2000 genes. Expression of genes associated with plant immune responses (protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase), hypersensitive responses, phytohormone signaling pathways, photosynthesis, pigment metabolism, protein metabolism, sugar metabolism, and modification, and others were altered, which could be attributed to systemic symptom development upon CBCVd-infection in hop. In addition, genes encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, pathogenesis-related protein, chitinase, as well as those related to basal defense responses were up-regulated. The expression levels of several genes identified from RNA sequencing analysis were confirmed by qRT-PCR. Our systematic comprehensive CBCVd-responsive transcriptome analysis provides a better understanding and insights into complex viroid-hop plant interaction. This information will assist further in the development of future measures for the prevention of CBCVd spread in hop fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: Citrus bark cracking viroid; differentially expressed genes; hop; pathogen; transcriptome analysis; viroids Citrus bark cracking viroid; differentially expressed genes; hop; pathogen; transcriptome analysis; viroids
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Mishra, A.K.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, D.; Nath, V.S.; Jakše, J.; Kocábek, T.; Killi, U.K.; Morina, F.; Matoušek, J. Genome-Wide Transcriptomic Analysis Reveals Insights into the Response to Citrus bark cracking viroid (CBCVd) in Hop (Humulus lupulus L.). Viruses 2018, 10, 570.

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