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Forests 2018, 9(11), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9110698

Fungal Communities Associated with Bark Beetles in Pinus radiata Plantations in Northern Spain Affected by Pine Pitch Canker, with Special Focus on Fusarium Species

1
Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid—INIA, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain
2
Department of Vegetal Production and Forest Resources, University of Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain
3
Calabazanos Forest Health Centre, Junta de Castilla y León, Polígono Industrial de Villamuriel, S/N, Villamuriel de Cerrato, 34190 Palencia, Spain
4
Department of Biology, Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies (CESAM), University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
5
Department of Agroforestry Science, University of Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain
This work is part of my Master project presented in 2013 in Spanish, and also it is part of my doctoral thesis (written in English) presented in 2015.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 6 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
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Abstract

Fusarium spp., as well as other endophytic or pathogenic fungi that form communities, have been reported to be phoretically associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera; Scolytinae) worldwide. This applies to Fusarium circinatum Nirenberg and O’Donnell, the causal agent of pine pitch canker (PPC), which threatens Pinus radiata D. Don plantations in northern Spain. The main objective of this study was to study the fungal communities associated with bark beetles and their galleries in stands affected by PPC, with special attention given to Fusarium species. Funnel traps and logs were placed in a P. radiata plot known to be affected by F. circinatum. The traps were baited with different attractants: four with (E)-pityol and six with ethanol and α-Pinene. In addition, fresh green shoots with Tomicus piniperda L. feeding galleries were collected from the ground in 25 P. radiata plots affected by PPC. Extracts of whole insects and gallery tissues were plated on agar medium to isolate and identify the associated fungi. A total of 24 different fungal species were isolated from the bark beetle galleries constructed in logs and shoots, while 18 were isolated from the insect exoskeletons. Ten different Fusarium species were isolated from tissue and insects. Fusarium circinatum was isolated from bark beetle exoskeletons (1.05% of the Pityophthorus pubescens Marsham specimens harboured F. circinatum) and from the galleries (3.5% of the T. piniperda feeding galleries harboured the pathogen). The findings provide information about the fungal communities associated with bark beetles in P. radiata stands in northern Spain. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium circinatum; bark beetles; Monterey pine; endophytes Fusarium circinatum; bark beetles; Monterey pine; endophytes
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bezos, D.; Martínez-Álvarez, P.; Sanz-Ros, A.V.; Martín-García, J.; Fernandez, M.M.; Diez, J.J. Fungal Communities Associated with Bark Beetles in Pinus radiata Plantations in Northern Spain Affected by Pine Pitch Canker, with Special Focus on Fusarium Species. Forests 2018, 9, 698.

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