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Forests 2018, 9(11), 697; https://doi.org/10.3390/f9110697

The Use of qPCR Reveals a High Frequency of Phytophthora quercina in Two Spanish Holm Oak Areas

Instituto Agroforestal Mediterráneo, Universitat Politècnica de València, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia, Spain
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Received: 17 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 8 November 2018 / Published: 10 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impacts, Monitoring and Management of Forest Pests and Diseases)
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Abstract

The struggling Spanish holm oak woodland situation associated with Phytophthora root rot has been studied for a long time. Phytophthora cinnamomi is considered the main, but not the only species responsible for the decline scenario. This study verifies the presence and/or detection of Phytophthora species in two holm oak areas of Spain (southwestern “dehesas” and northeastern woodland) using different isolation and detection approaches. Direct isolation and baiting methods in declining and non-declining holm oak trees revealed Phytophthora cambivora, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Phytophthora gonapodyides, Phytophthora megasperma, and Phytophthora pseudocryptogea in the dehesas, while in the northeastern woodland, no Phytophthora spp. were recovered. Statistical analyses indicated that there was not a significant relationship between the Phytophthora spp. isolation frequency and the disease expression of the holm oak stands in the dehesas. Phytophthora quercina and P. cinnamomi TaqMan real-time PCR probes showed that both P. cinnamomi and P. quercina are involved in the holm oak decline in Spain, but P. quercina was detected in a higher frequency than P. cinnamomi in both studied areas. Thus, this study demonstrates that molecular approaches complement direct isolation techniques in natural and seminatural ecosystem surveys to determine the presence and distribution of Phytophthora spp. This is the first report of P. pseudocryptogea in Europe and its role in the holm oak decline should be further studied. View Full-Text
Keywords: Quercus ilex L.; Phytophthora cinnamomi; Phytophthora quercina; Phytophthora pseudocryptogea; qPCR Quercus ilex L.; Phytophthora cinnamomi; Phytophthora quercina; Phytophthora pseudocryptogea; qPCR
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Mora-Sala, B.; Berbegal, M.; Abad-Campos, P. The Use of qPCR Reveals a High Frequency of Phytophthora quercina in Two Spanish Holm Oak Areas. Forests 2018, 9, 697.

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