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Fungal Communities Associated with Bark Beetles in Pinus radiata Plantations in Northern Spain Affected by Pine Pitch Canker, with Special Focus on Fusarium Species
Open AccessArticle

Factors Affecting the Distribution of Pine Pitch Canker in Northern Spain

1
Department of Plant Pathology and Weed Research, ARO, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan 50250, Israel
2
Department of Biology, CESAM (Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies), University of Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal
3
Sustainable Forest Management Research Institute, University of Valladolid—INIA, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34071 Palencia, Spain
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Department of Plant Production and Forest Resources, University of Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34071 Palencia, Spain
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Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-food and Forest systems (DIBAF) University of Tuscia, Via San Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo, Italy
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Department of Agroforestry Sciences, University of Valladolid, Avenida de Madrid 44, 34004 Palencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(4), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10040305
Received: 5 February 2019 / Revised: 10 March 2019 / Accepted: 19 March 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
Fusarium circinatum is the causal agent of pine pitch canker disease (PPC), affecting Pinus species and other conifers (i.e., Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco.), forming resinous cankers on the main stem and branches and causing dieback in the terminal guide. This pathogen is spreading worldwide, causing economic losses by converting plantations into standing timber without any potential for future production. The disease was recently detected in Northern Spain in plantations of Pinus radiata and forest nurseries. The aim of the work reported here was to study the role of climatic and topographic variables, soil properties, and stand characteristics on PPC. For this purpose, we surveyed 50 pine stands in Cantabria and quantified the percentage of trees showing three symptoms in each stand: canker, defoliation, and dieback. We investigated the predictive power of 30 variables using generalized linear models and hierarchical partitioning. Both approaches yielded similar results. We found that the three symptoms correlated with different explanatory variables. In addition, more trees exhibited cankers in the proximity of the coast and the Basque Country. Additionally, our results showed that low canopy cover is related to a high level of the dieback symptom. Overall, this study highlights the important variables affecting the distribution of PPC in Cantabria. View Full-Text
Keywords: forest epidemiology; Fusarium circinatum; generalized linear models; hierarchical partitioning; Pinus radiata forest epidemiology; Fusarium circinatum; generalized linear models; hierarchical partitioning; Pinus radiata
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Blank, L.; Martín-García, J.; Bezos, D.; Vettraino, A.M.; Krasnov, H.; Lomba, J.M.; Fernández, M.; Diez, J.J. Factors Affecting the Distribution of Pine Pitch Canker in Northern Spain. Forests 2019, 10, 305.

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