Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of O3 Effects on Cumulative Photosynthetic CO2 Uptake in Seedlings of Four Japanese Deciduous Broad-Leaved Forest Tree Species Based on Stomatal O3 Uptake
Next Article in Special Issue
Development of a Tree Growth Difference Equation and Its Application in Forecasting the Biomass Carbon Stocks of Chinese Forests in 2050
Previous Article in Journal
Phosphorus Mobilizing Enzymes of Alnus-Associated Ectomycorrhizal Fungi in an Alaskan Boreal Floodplain
Previous Article in Special Issue
Divergent Last Century Tree Growth along An Altitudinal Gradient in A Pinus sylvestris L. Dry-edge Population
Open AccessArticle

Most Southern Scots Pine Populations Are Locally Adapted to Drought for Tree Height Growth

1
BIOGECO, INRA, Univ. Bordeaux, 33615 Pessac, France
2
INIA, Forest Research Centre & iuFOR UVa-INIA, Ctra La Coruña km 7.5, 28040 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(7), 555; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10070555
Received: 12 June 2019 / Revised: 28 June 2019 / Accepted: 29 June 2019 / Published: 2 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Climate Change on Tree Growth and Forest Ecosystems)
Most populations of Scots pine in Spain are locally adapted to drought, with only a few populations at the southernmost part of the distribution range showing maladaptations to the current climate. Increasing tree heights are predicted for most of the studied populations by the year 2070, under the RCP 8.5 scenario. These results are probably linked to the capacity of this species to acclimatize to new climates. The impact of climate change on tree growth depends on many processes, including the capacity of individuals to respond to changes in the environment. Pines are often locally adapted to their environments, leading to differences among populations. Generally, populations at the margins of the species’ ranges show lower performances in fitness-related traits than core populations. Therefore, under expected changes in climate, populations at the southern part of the species’ ranges could be at a higher risk of maladaptation. Here, we hypothesize that southern Scots pine populations are locally adapted to current climate, and that expected changes in climate may lead to a decrease in tree performance. We used Scots pine tree height growth data from 15-year-old individuals, measured in six common gardens in Spain, where plants from 16 Spanish provenances had been planted. We analyzed tree height growth, accounting for the climate of the planting sites, and the climate of the original population to assess local adaptation, using linear mixed-effect models. We found that: (1) drought drove differences among populations in tree height growth; (2) most populations were locally adapted to drought; (3) tree height was predicted to increase for most of the studied populations by the year 2070 (a concentration of RCP 8.5). Most populations of Scots pine in Spain were locally adapted to drought. This result suggests that marginal populations, despite inhabiting limiting environments, can be adapted to the local current conditions. In addition, the local adaptation and acclimation capacity of populations can help margin populations to keep pace with climate change. Our results highlight the importance of analyzing, case-by-case, populations’ capacities to cope with climate change. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; gene flow; local adaptation; maladaptation; mixed-models; phenotypic plasticity; phenotypic variation climate change; gene flow; local adaptation; maladaptation; mixed-models; phenotypic plasticity; phenotypic variation
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Vizcaíno-Palomar, N.; González-Muñoz, N.; González-Martínez, S.C.; Alía, R.; Benito Garzón, M. Most Southern Scots Pine Populations Are Locally Adapted to Drought for Tree Height Growth. Forests 2019, 10, 555.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map

1
Back to TopTop