Next Article in Journal
Coarse Woody Debris Management with Ambiguous Chance Constrained Robust Optimization
Next Article in Special Issue
Density Dependence of Egg Recruitment and Moth Dispersal in Spruce Budworms
Previous Article in Journal
Presence of Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Rather than Living Roots Retards Root Litter Decomposition
Previous Article in Special Issue
Economics of Early Intervention to Suppress a Potential Spruce Budworm Outbreak on Crown Land in New Brunswick, Canada
Open AccessArticle

Influence of a Foliar Endophyte and Budburst Phenology on Survival of Wild and Laboratory-Reared Eastern Spruce Budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana on White Spruce (Picea glauca)

1
Population Ecology Group, Faculty of Forestry and Environmental Management, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B 6C2, Canada
2
J.D. Irving Limited, 181 Aiton Road, Sussex East, NB E4G 2V5, Canada
3
Maritime Innovation Limited, 181 Aiton Road, Sussex East, NB E4G 2V5, Canada
4
Department of Chemistry, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON K1S 5B6, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Forests 2019, 10(6), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/f10060503
Received: 3 May 2019 / Revised: 2 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Protection Strategy against Spruce Budworm)
A manipulative field study was carried out to determine whether the foliar endophyte fungus, Phialocephala scopiformis DAOM 229536, decreased the performance of eastern spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana larvae developing on white spruce trees. Overwintered second-instar budworm larvae from a laboratory colony or from a wild population were placed on endophyte positive or negative trees one or two weeks before budburst. The presence of the endophyte in the needles reduced the survival of C. fumiferana from both a wild population and a laboratory colony. Survival for budworm juveniles up to pupation and to adult emergence was 13% and 17% lower, respectively, on endophyte positive trees. The endophyte did not influence the size or sex of survivors and budworm survival was not influenced by any two- or three-way interactions. Budworm survival was higher for wild than for laboratory-reared budworm and for budworm placed on trees a week before budburst. This may be the first field study to demonstrate the efficacy of an endophytic fungus against wild individuals of a major forest insect pest. The efficacy of the endophyte at low larval densities suggests that it could be a useful tactic to limit spruce budworm population growth in the context of an early intervention strategy. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pinaceae; endophytic fungi; plant tolerance; Phialocephala scopiformis; Picea glauca; spruce budworm; phenology; insect susceptibility Pinaceae; endophytic fungi; plant tolerance; Phialocephala scopiformis; Picea glauca; spruce budworm; phenology; insect susceptibility
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Quiring, D.; Adams, G.; Flaherty, L.; McCartney, A.; Miller, J.D.; Edwards, S. Influence of a Foliar Endophyte and Budburst Phenology on Survival of Wild and Laboratory-Reared Eastern Spruce Budworm, Choristoneura fumiferana on White Spruce (Picea glauca). Forests 2019, 10, 503.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop