Smart cities need technologies that can be really applied to raise the quality of life and environment. Among all the possible solutions, Internet of Things (IoT)-based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have the potentialities to satisfy multiple needs, such as offering real-time plans for emergency management (due to accidental events or inadequate asset maintenance) and managing crowds and their spatiotemporal distribution in highly populated areas (e.g., cities or parks) to face biological risks (e.g., from a virus) by using strategies such as social distancing and movement restrictions. Consequently, the objective of this study is to present an IoT system, based on an IoT-WSN and on algorithms (Neural Network, NN, and Shortest Path Finding) that are able to recognize alarms, available exits, assembly points, safest and shortest paths, and overcrowding from real-time data gathered by sensors and cameras exploiting computer vision. Subsequently, this information is sent to mobile devices using a web platform and the Near Field Communication (NFC) technology. The results refer to two different case studies (i.e., emergency and monitoring) and show that the system is able to provide customized strategies and to face different situations, and that this is also applies in the case of a connectivity shutdown.
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