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Towards Lead-Free Piezoceramics: Facing a Synthesis Challenge

Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Circuito Exterior S/N, A.P, México D.F. 70-360, Mexico
Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, Madrid 28040, Spain
Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (ICMM), CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz, 3. Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Steven Suib
Materials 2016, 9(1), 21;
Received: 30 October 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 17 December 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Materials)
The search for electroceramic materials with enhanced ferro-pyro-piezoelectric properties and revealing the perovskite type structure has been the objective of a significant number of manuscripts reported in the literature. This has been usually carried out by proposing the synthesis and processing of new compounds and solid solution series. In this work, several methods to obtain ferro-pyro-piezoelectric families of materials featuring the well-known ABO3 perovskite structure (or related) such as BaTiO3, Ba1–xCaxTi1–yZryO3, (Bi0.5Na0.5)TiO3, (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 and their solid solutions with different cations either in the A or B positions, are presented. For this kind of materials, the challenge for obtaining a single phase compound with a specific grain size and morphology and, most importantly, with the adequate stoichiometry, will also be discussed. The results reviewed herein will be discussed in terms of the tendency of working with softer conditions, i.e., lower temperature and shorter reaction times, also referred to as soft-chemistry. View Full-Text
Keywords: synthesis; sintering; lead-free; BT; BCZT; BNT; KNN; ceramics; ferroelectricity; piezoelectricity synthesis; sintering; lead-free; BT; BCZT; BNT; KNN; ceramics; ferroelectricity; piezoelectricity
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Villafuerte-Castrejón, M.E.; Morán, E.; Reyes-Montero, A.; Vivar-Ocampo, R.; Peña-Jiménez, J.-A.; Rea-López, S.-O.; Pardo, L. Towards Lead-Free Piezoceramics: Facing a Synthesis Challenge. Materials 2016, 9, 21.

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