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Open AccessArticle

Transformation-Induced Relaxation and Stress Recovery of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy

1
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, 1247 Yachigusa, Yakusa-cho, Toyota 470-0392, Japan
2
Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences, Pawinskiego 5B, Warszawa 02-106, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2014, 7(3), 1912-1926; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma7031912
Received: 4 December 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Shape Memory Materials)
The transformation-induced stress relaxation and stress recovery of TiNi shape memory alloy (SMA) in stress-controlled subloop loading were investigated based on the local variation in temperature and transformation band on the surface of the tape in the tension test. The results obtained are summarized as follows. (1) In the loading process, temperature increases due to the exothermic martensitic transformation (MT) until the holding strain and thereafter temperature decreases while holding the strain constant, resulting in stress relaxation due to the MT; (2) In the unloading process, temperature decreases due to the endothermic reverse transformation until the holding strain and thereafter temperature increases while holding the strain constant, resulting in stress recovery due to the reverse transformation; (3) Stress varies markedly in the initial stage followed by gradual change while holding the strain constant; (4) If the stress rate is high until the holding strain in the loading and unloading processes, both stress relaxation and stress recovery are large; (5) It is important to take into account this behavior in the design of SMA elements, since the force of SMA elements varies even if the atmospheric temperature is kept constant. View Full-Text
Keywords: shape memory alloy; superelasticity; titanium-nickel alloy; subloop; stress relaxation; stress recovery; martensitic transformation shape memory alloy; superelasticity; titanium-nickel alloy; subloop; stress relaxation; stress recovery; martensitic transformation
MDPI and ACS Style

Takeda, K.; Matsui, R.; Tobushi, H.; Pieczyska, E.A. Transformation-Induced Relaxation and Stress Recovery of TiNi Shape Memory Alloy. Materials 2014, 7, 1912-1926.

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