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Article

Rapid 3 s Curing: What Happens in Deep Layers of New Bulk-Fill Composites?

1
Department of Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dental Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
2
Institute for Physics and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
3
Institute of Physics, Zagreb 10000, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2021, 14(3), 515; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030515
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 8 January 2021 / Accepted: 19 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Bulk-Fill Composite Resins)
This study assessed the influence of rapid 3 s light curing on the new generation of bulk-fill resin composites under the simulated aging challenge and depths up to 4 mm. Four bulk-fill materials were tested: two materials designed for rapid curing (Tetric PowerFill—PFILL; Tetric PowerFlow—PFLW) and two regular materials (Filtek One Bulk Fill Restorative—FIL; SDR Plus Bulk Fill Flowable—SDR). Three-point bending (n = 10) was used to measure flexural strength (FS) and flexural modulus (FM). In the 3 s group, two 2 mm thick specimens were stacked to obtain 4 mm thickness, while 2 mm-thick specimens were used for ISO group. Specimens were aged for 1, 30, or 30 + 3 days in ethanol. The degree of conversion (DC) up to 4 mm was measured by Raman spectroscopy. There was no difference between curing protocols in FS after 1 day for all materials except PFLW. FM was higher for all materials for ISO curing protocol. Mechanical properties deteriorated by increasing depth (2–4 mm) and aging. ISO curing induced higher DC for PFLW and FIL, while 3 s curing was sufficient for PFILL and SDR. The 3 s curing negatively affected FM of all tested materials, whereas its influence on FS and DC was highly material-specific. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3 s curing; bulk-fill composites; flexural strength; flexural modulus; degree of conversion; aging; radiant exitance; addition–fragmentation chain transfer 3 s curing; bulk-fill composites; flexural strength; flexural modulus; degree of conversion; aging; radiant exitance; addition–fragmentation chain transfer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Marovic, D.; Par, M.; Crnadak, A.; Sekelja, A.; Negovetic Mandic, V.; Gamulin, O.; Rakić, M.; Tarle, Z. Rapid 3 s Curing: What Happens in Deep Layers of New Bulk-Fill Composites? Materials 2021, 14, 515. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030515

AMA Style

Marovic D, Par M, Crnadak A, Sekelja A, Negovetic Mandic V, Gamulin O, Rakić M, Tarle Z. Rapid 3 s Curing: What Happens in Deep Layers of New Bulk-Fill Composites? Materials. 2021; 14(3):515. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030515

Chicago/Turabian Style

Marovic, Danijela, Matej Par, Ana Crnadak, Andjelina Sekelja, Visnja Negovetic Mandic, Ozren Gamulin, Mario Rakić, and Zrinka Tarle. 2021. "Rapid 3 s Curing: What Happens in Deep Layers of New Bulk-Fill Composites?" Materials 14, no. 3: 515. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14030515

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