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Article

On Coolant Flow Rate-Cutting Speed Trade-Off for Sustainability in Cryogenic Milling of Ti–6Al–4V

1
Faculty of Integrated Technologies, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Jalan Tungku Link, Gadong BE 1410, Brunei
2
Department of Manufacturing & Automation, College of Mechanical & Electrical Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 29-Yu Dao Street, Nanjing 210016, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andrea P. Reverberi
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3429; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123429
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 5 June 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 21 June 2021
Application of cryogenic fluids for efficient heat dissipation is gradually becoming part and parcel of titanium machining. Not much research is done to establish the minimum quantity of a cryogenic fluid required to sustain a machining process with respect to a given material removal rate. This article presents an experimental investigation for quantifying the sustainability of milling a commonly used titanium alloy (Ti–6Al–4V) by varying mass flow rates of two kinds of cryogenic coolants at various levels of cutting speed. The three cooling options tested are dry (no coolant), evaporative cryogenic coolant (liquid nitrogen), and throttle cryogenic coolant (compressed carbon dioxide gas). The milling sustainability is quantified in terms of the following metrics: tool damage, fluid cost, specific cutting energy, work surface roughness, and productivity. Dry milling carried out the at the highest level of cutting speed yielded the worst results regarding tool damage and surface roughness. Likewise, the evaporative coolant applied with the highest flow rate and at the lowest cutting speed was the worst performer with respect to energy consumption. From a holistic perspective, the throttle cryogenic coolant applied at the highest levels of mass flow rate and cutting speed stood out to be the most sustainable option. View Full-Text
Keywords: machining; titanium; tool damage; surface roughness; tungsten carbide; cutting energy; material removal rate; liquid nitrogen; CO2 gas; cutting forces machining; titanium; tool damage; surface roughness; tungsten carbide; cutting energy; material removal rate; liquid nitrogen; CO2 gas; cutting forces
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MDPI and ACS Style

Iqbal, A.; Zhao, G.; Suhaimi, H.; Nauman, M.M.; He, N.; Zaini, J.; Zhao, W. On Coolant Flow Rate-Cutting Speed Trade-Off for Sustainability in Cryogenic Milling of Ti–6Al–4V. Materials 2021, 14, 3429. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123429

AMA Style

Iqbal A, Zhao G, Suhaimi H, Nauman MM, He N, Zaini J, Zhao W. On Coolant Flow Rate-Cutting Speed Trade-Off for Sustainability in Cryogenic Milling of Ti–6Al–4V. Materials. 2021; 14(12):3429. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123429

Chicago/Turabian Style

Iqbal, Asif, Guolong Zhao, Hazwani Suhaimi, Malik M. Nauman, Ning He, Juliana Zaini, and Wei Zhao. 2021. "On Coolant Flow Rate-Cutting Speed Trade-Off for Sustainability in Cryogenic Milling of Ti–6Al–4V" Materials 14, no. 12: 3429. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123429

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