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Review

Recent Progress in Cathode Materials for Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries

1
College of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601, China
2
Battery Materials and Systems Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the manuscript.
Academic Editor: Alessandro Dell’Era
Materials 2021, 14(12), 3260; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123260
Received: 22 May 2021 / Revised: 4 June 2021 / Accepted: 8 June 2021 / Published: 12 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Technology and Materials Development for Grid Energy Storage)
Transitioning from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is a critical goal to address greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. Major improvements have made wind and solar power increasingly cost-competitive with fossil fuels. However, the inherent intermittency of renewable power sources motivates pairing these resources with energy storage. Electrochemical energy storage in batteries is widely used in many fields and increasingly for grid-level storage, but current battery technologies still fall short of performance, safety, and cost. This review focuses on sodium metal halide (Na-MH) batteries, such as the well-known Na-NiCl2 battery, as a promising solution to safe and economical grid-level energy storage. Important features of conventional Na-MH batteries are discussed, and recent literature on the development of intermediate-temperature, low-cost cathodes for Na-MH batteries is highlighted. By employing lower cost metal halides (e.g., FeCl2, and ZnCl2, etc.) in the cathode and operating at lower temperatures (e.g., 190 °C vs. 280 °C), new Na-MH batteries have the potential to offer comparable performance at much lower overall costs, providing an exciting alternative technology to enable widespread adoption of renewables-plus-storage for the grid. View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium metal-halide battery; intermediate temperature; low-cost cathode; ZEBRA battery; energy storage sodium metal-halide battery; intermediate temperature; low-cost cathode; ZEBRA battery; energy storage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhan, X.; Li, M.M.; Weller, J.M.; Sprenkle, V.L.; Li, G. Recent Progress in Cathode Materials for Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries. Materials 2021, 14, 3260. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123260

AMA Style

Zhan X, Li MM, Weller JM, Sprenkle VL, Li G. Recent Progress in Cathode Materials for Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries. Materials. 2021; 14(12):3260. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123260

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhan, Xiaowen, Minyuan M. Li, J. Mark Weller, Vincent L. Sprenkle, and Guosheng Li. 2021. "Recent Progress in Cathode Materials for Sodium-Metal Halide Batteries" Materials 14, no. 12: 3260. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14123260

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