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Article

Evaluating ZEBRA Battery Module under the Peak-Shaving Duty Cycles

Battery Materials & System Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Digby Macdonald
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2280; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092280
Received: 26 March 2021 / Revised: 21 April 2021 / Accepted: 26 April 2021 / Published: 28 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Technology and Materials Development for Grid Energy Storage)
With the recent rapid increase in demand for reliable, long-cycle life, and safe battery technologies for large-scale energy-storage applications, a battery module based on ZEBRA battery chemistry is extensively evaluated for its application in peak shaving duty cycles. First, this module is tested with a full capacity cycle consisting of a charging process (factory default) and a discharging process with a current of 40 A. The battery energy efficiency (discharge vs. charge) is about 90%, and the overall energy efficiency is 80.9%, which includes the auxiliary power used to run the battery management system electronics and self-heating to maintain the module operating temperature (265 °C). Generally, because of the increased self-heating during the holding times that exist for the peak shaving duty cycles, the overall module efficiency decreases slightly for the peak-shaving duty cycles (70.7–71.8%) compared to the full-capacity duty cycle. With a 6 h, peak-shaving duty cycle, the overall energy efficiency increases from 71.8% for 7.5 kWh energy utilization to 74.1% for 8.5 kWh. We conducted long-term cycling tests of the module at a 6 h, peak-shaving duty cycle with 7.5 kWh energy utilization, and the module exhibited a capacity degradation rate of 0.0046%/cycle over 150 cycles (>150 days). View Full-Text
Keywords: sodium nickel chloride battery; ZEBRA battery; grid energy storage; peak shaving duty cycle; long-term cycling sodium nickel chloride battery; ZEBRA battery; grid energy storage; peak shaving duty cycle; long-term cycling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shamim, N.; Thomsen, E.C.; Viswanathan, V.V.; Reed, D.M.; Sprenkle, V.L.; Li, G. Evaluating ZEBRA Battery Module under the Peak-Shaving Duty Cycles. Materials 2021, 14, 2280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092280

AMA Style

Shamim N, Thomsen EC, Viswanathan VV, Reed DM, Sprenkle VL, Li G. Evaluating ZEBRA Battery Module under the Peak-Shaving Duty Cycles. Materials. 2021; 14(9):2280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092280

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shamim, Nimat, Edwin C. Thomsen, Vilayanur V. Viswanathan, David M. Reed, Vincent L. Sprenkle, and Guosheng Li. 2021. "Evaluating ZEBRA Battery Module under the Peak-Shaving Duty Cycles" Materials 14, no. 9: 2280. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092280

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