This study aims to evaluate changes of maxillary sinuses in growing subjects. Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans of 146 patients were divided according to gender and age (6–8, 9–11, 12–14 years old). Left, right and total maxillary sinus volume (MSV-R, MSV-L, MSV-Tot) and surface (MSS-R, MSS-L, MSS-Tot), left and right linear maximum width (LMW-L, LMW-R), depth (LMD-R, LMD-L) and height (LMH-R, LMH-R) were calculated using Mimics Research 22. Kruskal–Wallis Test and showed a statistically significant increase in both genders for all variables. Pairwise comparisons in females are always statistically significant in: LMH-R, LMH-R, MSS-Tot, MSV-Tot. All other variables showed a statistical significant increase between 9–11 and 12–14, and between 6–8 and 12–14 age groups, apart from LMSW-R, LMSW-L, LMSD-R, LMSD-L between 6–8 and 12–14 age groups. Pairwise comparisons in males are always and only statistically significant between 9–11 and 12–14, and between 6–8 and 12–14 groups. Symmetrical measurements (right and left) evaluated using Wilcoxon test retrieved no statistical significant difference. Comparisons between measurements on male and female subjects using Mann–Whitney test showed a statistical significant difference in 6–8 years group in MSV-R, MSV-L and MSV-Tot, and in 12–14 age group in MSV-R, MSV-L, MSV-Tot, MSS-r, MSS-l, MSS-Tot, MSW-R, MSW-L, MSD-R, MSD-L. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) assessing inter-operator and intra-operator concordance retrieved excellent results for all variables. It appears that maxillary sinus growth resembles the differential peak of growth in male and female subjects. Sinuses starts to develop early in female subjects. However, in the first and last age group female sinuses are statistically significantly smaller compared to male ones. In male subjects, sinus growth occurs mainly between the second and third age group whilst in female subjects it starts between the first and second age group and continues between the second and the last. Sinus has a vertical development during the peak of growth, which is the main reason for its increase in volume.
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