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Open AccessArticle

3D Printing of Polycaprolactone–Polyaniline Electroactive Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

1
Material Science and Engineering Research Group, Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
2
Research Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
3
Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
4
Mechanical Design Research Group, Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
5
Lightweight Structure Research Group, Faculty of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
equal contribution.
Materials 2020, 13(3), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13030512
Received: 10 December 2019 / Revised: 13 January 2020 / Accepted: 19 January 2020 / Published: 22 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electro-Active Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering)
Electrostimulation and electroactive scaffolds can positively influence and guide cellular behaviour and thus has been garnering interest as a key tissue engineering strategy. The development of conducting polymers such as polyaniline enables the fabrication of conductive polymeric composite scaffolds. In this study, we report on the initial development of a polycaprolactone scaffold incorporating different weight loadings of a polyaniline microparticle filler. The scaffolds are fabricated using screw-assisted extrusion-based 3D printing and are characterised for their morphological, mechanical, conductivity, and preliminary biological properties. The conductivity of the polycaprolactone scaffolds increases with the inclusion of polyaniline. The in vitro cytocompatibility of the scaffolds was assessed using human adipose-derived stem cells to determine cell viability and proliferation up to 21 days. A cytotoxicity threshold was reached at 1% wt. polyaniline loading. Scaffolds with 0.1% wt. polyaniline showed suitable compressive strength (6.45 ± 0.16 MPa) and conductivity (2.46 ± 0.65 × 10−4 S/cm) for bone tissue engineering applications and demonstrated the highest cell viability at day 1 (88%) with cytocompatibility for up to 21 days in cell culture. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D printing; electroactive scaffold; polyaniline; tissue engineering 3D printing; electroactive scaffold; polyaniline; tissue engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wibowo, A.; Vyas, C.; Cooper, G.; Qulub, F.; Suratman, R.; Mahyuddin, A.I.; Dirgantara, T.; Bartolo, P. 3D Printing of Polycaprolactone–Polyaniline Electroactive Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering. Materials 2020, 13, 512.

AMA Style

Wibowo A, Vyas C, Cooper G, Qulub F, Suratman R, Mahyuddin AI, Dirgantara T, Bartolo P. 3D Printing of Polycaprolactone–Polyaniline Electroactive Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering. Materials. 2020; 13(3):512.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wibowo, Arie; Vyas, Cian; Cooper, Glen; Qulub, Fitriyatul; Suratman, Rochim; Mahyuddin, Andi I.; Dirgantara, Tatacipta; Bartolo, Paulo. 2020. "3D Printing of Polycaprolactone–Polyaniline Electroactive Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering" Materials 13, no. 3: 512.

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