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Open AccessArticle

Numerical Simulation of Electroactive Hydrogels for Cartilage–Tissue Engineering

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Institute of General Electrical Engineering, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
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Department of Electronics Engineering, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100 Bahawalpur, Pakistan
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Department of Orthopaedics, University Medical Center Rostock, 18057 Rostock, Germany
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Department Life, Light & Matter, University of Rostock, 18051 Rostock, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2913; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182913
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 27 August 2019 / Accepted: 4 September 2019 / Published: 9 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electro-Active Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering)
The intrinsic regeneration potential of hyaline cartilage is highly limited due to the absence of blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves, as well as a low cell turnover within the tissue. Despite various advancements in the field of regenerative medicine, it remains a challenge to remedy articular cartilage defects resulting from trauma, aging, or osteoarthritis. Among various approaches, tissue engineering using tailored electroactive scaffolds has evolved as a promising strategy to repair damaged cartilage tissue. In this approach, hydrogel scaffolds are used as artificial extracellular matrices, and electric stimulation is applied to facilitate proliferation, differentiation, and cell growth at the defect site. In this regard, we present a simulation model of electroactive hydrogels to be used for cartilage–tissue engineering employing open-source finite-element software FEniCS together with a Python interface. The proposed mathematical formulation was first validated with an example from the literature. Then, we computed the effect of electric stimulation on a circular hydrogel sample that served as a model for a cartilage-repair implant. View Full-Text
Keywords: electrical stimulation; articular cartilage; cartilage–tissue engineering; electrically conductive hydrogels; scaffold; computational modelling electrical stimulation; articular cartilage; cartilage–tissue engineering; electrically conductive hydrogels; scaffold; computational modelling
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MDPI and ACS Style

Farooqi, A.R.; Zimmermann, J.; Bader, R.; van Rienen, U. Numerical Simulation of Electroactive Hydrogels for Cartilage–Tissue Engineering. Materials 2019, 12, 2913.

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