Material removal technologies should be thoroughly analyzed not only to optimize operations but also to minimize the different waste emissions and obtain cleaner production centers. The study of environmental sustainability in manufacturing processes, which is rapidly gaining importance, requires activity modeling with material and resource inputs and outputs and, most importantly, the definition of a balanced scorecard with suitable indicators for different levels, including the operational level. This paper proposes a metrics deployment approach for the different stages of the product life cycle, including a conceptual framework of high-level indicators and the definition of machining process indicators from different perspectives. This set of metrics enables methodological measurement and analysis and integrates the results into aggregated indicators that can be considered for continuous improvement strategies. This approach was validated by five case studies of experimental testing of the sustainability indicators in material removal operations. The results helped to confirm or modify the approach and to adjust the parameter definitions to optimize the initial sustainability objectives.
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