This article presents a comparison of bone replacement materials in terms of their ability to produce living bone image at the place of their implantation. Five bone replacement materials are compared (Osteovit—porous collagen, Cerasorb Foam—collagen scaffolding of synthetic β tricalcium phosphate, Osbone—synthetic hydroxyapatite, Endobone—deproteinized bovine-derived cancellous bone hydroxyapatite, and Cerasorb—synthetic β tricalcium phosphate). Intraoral radiographs are taken immediately after implantation and 12 months later. The texture analysis was performed to assess (texture index, TI) the level of structure chaos (entropy) in relation to the presence of longitudinal elements visible in radiographs (run length emphasis moment). The reference ratio of the chaotic trabecular pattern (Entropy) to the number of longitudinal structures, i.e., trabeculae (LngREmph), is 176:100 (i.e., 1.76 ± 0.28). Radiological homogeneity immediately after the implantation procedure is a result of the similar shape of its particles (Osbone, Endobone and Cerasorb) or radiolucency (Osteovit, Cerasorb Foam). The particles visible in radiographs were similar in the LngREmph parameters applied to the reference bone, but not in the co-occurrence matrix features. The TI for Osteovit during a 12-month follow-up period changed from 1.55 ± 0.26 to 1.48 ± 0.26 (p
> 0.05), for Cerasorb Foam from 1.82 ± 0.27 to 1.63 ± 0.24 (p
< 0.05), for Osbone from 1.97 ± 0.31 to 1.74 ± 0.30 (p
< 0.01), and for Endobone from 1.86 ± 0.25 to 1.84 ± 0.25 (p
> 0.05), The observed structure in the radiological image of bone substitute materials containing calcium phosphates obtains the characteristics of a living bone image after twelve months.
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